Research Papers

Worldwide assessments of laser radar tactical scenario performance variability for diverse low altitude atmospheric conditions at 1.0642 μm and 1.557 μm

[+] Author Affiliations
Steven T. Fiorino, Richard J. Bartell, Matthew J. Krizo, Daniel J. Fedyk, Kenneth P. Moore, Thomas R. Harris, Salvatore J. Cusumano

Center for Directed Energy, Air Force Institute of Technology, 2950 Hobson Way, Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio 45433-7765

Richard Richmond, Matthew J. Gebhardt

Sensors Directorate, Air Force Research Laboratory, 3109 Hobson Way, Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio 45433-7700

J. Appl. Remote Sens. 3(1), 033521 (March 31, 2009). doi:10.1117/1.3122349
History: Received January 30, 2008; Revised March 18, 2009; Accepted March 24, 2009; March 31, 2009; Online March 31, 2009
Text Size: A A A

Open Access Open Access

Abstract

Spatial, spectral and temporal variations in operating conditions are major contributors to the expected variability/uncertainty in system performance. The ratio of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) based on climatological data to a standard atmosphere is the primary performance metric used, with results presented in the form of histograms and maps of worldwide LADAR performance variation. This metric is assessed at 2 wavelengths, 1.0642 μm and 1.557 μm, for a number of widely dispersed land and maritime locations worldwide over oblique and vertical air to surface paths in which anticipated clear air aerosols and location specific heavy rain and 150 m thick fog occur. Seasonal, boundary layer, and time of day variations for a range of relative humidity percentiles are also considered. In addition to realistic vertical profiles of molecular and aerosol extinction, air-to-ground cloud free line of sight (CFLOS) probabilities as a function of location for this geometry are computed. Observations from the current study strongly indicate that use of the standard atmosphere to predict performance will produce overly optimistic, in many cases extremely so, estimates of expected performance. Locally heavy rain, when present, severely limits LADAR system performance at these wavelengths. Some operational capability exists for vertical looks through fog.

References

R. J. Bartell, G. P. Perram, S. T. Fiorino, S. N. Long, M. J. Houle, C. A. Rice, Z. P. Manning, M. J. Krizo, D. W. Bunch, and L. E. Gravley, "Methodology for comparing worldwide performance of diverse weight-constrained high energy laser systems," Proc. SPIE 5792, 76-87 (2005)
M. F. Squires, B. A. Bietler, S.T . Fiorino, D. L. Parks, F. W. Youkhana, and H. D. Smith, "A method for creating regional and worldwide datasets of extreme and average values," Proc. Inst. Environ. Sci. Annu. Meet., pp. 6-11 (1995).
A. J. Bussey, J. R. Roadcap, R. R. Beland, and G. Y. Jumper, "Master data base for optical turbulence research in support of airborne laser," U.S. Air Force Res. Lab. Tech. Rep. AFRL-VS-TR-2000-1545 (2000).
P. Koepke, M. Hess, I. Schult, and E.P. Shettle, "Global aerosol data set," MPI Meteorologie Hamburg Rep. 243, 44 pp. (1997).
S. T. Fiorino, R. J. Bartell, G. P. Perram, D. W. Bunch, L. E. Gravley, C. A. Rice, Z. P. Manning, and M. J. Krizo, "The HELEEOS atmospheric effects package: a probabilistic method for evaluating uncertainty in low-altitude high energy laser effectiveness," J. Dir Energy 1(4), 347-360 (2006).
S. G. Gathman, A. M. J. van Eijk, and L. H. Cohen, "Characterizing large aerosols in the lowest levels of the marine atmosphere," Proc. SPIE 3433, 41-52 (1998)
P. A. Frederickson, K. L. Davidson, C. R. Zeisse, and C. S. Bendall, "Estimates of the refractive index structure parameter (Cn2) over the ocean using bulk methods," J. Appl. Meterol. 39, 1770 (2000).
L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J. Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamanche, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, and P. Varanasi, The HITRAN Molecular Spectroscopic Database and HAWKS (Hitran Atmospheric Workstation) 2004 ed. (2004).
W. J. Wiscombe, "Improved Mie scattering algorithms," Appl. Opt. 19(9), 1505-1510 (1980
M. Hess, P. Koepke, and I. Schult, "Optical properties of aerosols and clouds: the software package OPAC," Bull. Am. Met. Soc. 79, 831-844 (1998)
E. P. Shettle and R. W. Fenn, "Models for the aerosols of the lower atmosphere and the effects of humidity variations on their optical properties," Air Force Geophys. Lab. Tech. Rep. AFGL-TR-79-0214 (1979).
S. T. Fiorino, R. J. Bartell, M. J. Krizo, G. L. Caylor, K. P. Moore, and S. J. Cusumano, "Validation of a worldwide physics-based high-spectral resolution atmospheric characterization and propagation package for UV to RF wavelengths," Proc. SPIE 7090, 70900I (2008)
J. S. Marshall and W. McK. Palmer, "The distribution of raindrops with size," J. Meterol. 5, 165-166 (1948).
R. E. Hufnagel, "Propagation through atmospheric turbulence" The Infrared Handbook, W. L. Wolfe and G. J. Zissis, Eds., Infrared Information Analysis Center, Ann Arbor, MI (1985).
R. R. Beland, "Propagation through atmospheric optical turbulence," in Atmospheric Propagation of Radiation, pp. 157-232, F.G. Smith, Ed., The Infrared and Electro-Optical Systems Handbook, Vol. 2, SPIE Press, Bellingham, WA (1993).
L. E. Gravley, S. T. Fiorino, R. J. Bartell, G. P. Perram, M. J. Krizo, and K. Le, "Comparison of climatological optical turbulence profiles to standard, statistical, and numerical models using HELEEOS," J. Dir. Energy 3(1), 347-362 (2007).
S. T. Fiorino, R. J. Bartell, J. D. Eckel, M. J. Krizo, and S. J. Cusumano, "Application and impacts of ground-to-space cloud free line of sight probabilities to air-to-ground high energy laser engagement scenarios," Proc. 9th Ann. Directed Energy Symp., Albuquerque, NM (2006).
S. T. Fiorino, R. J. Bartell, G. P. Perram, M. J. Krizo, D. J. Fedyk, B. W. Wisdom, and S. J. Cusumano, "Worldwide estimates and uncertainty assessments of laser propagation for diverse geometries for paths in the altitude regime of 3 km and below at wavelengths of 0.355 μm to 10.6 μm," Proc. SPIE 6551 655104 (2007)
G.W . Kamerman, "Laser radar," in Active Electro-Optical Systems, pp. 1-76, C.S. Fox, Ed., The Infrared and Electro-Optical Systems Handbook, Vol. 6, SPIE Press, Bellingham, WA (1993).
R. K. Crane and D. W. Blood, "Handbook for the estimation of microwave propagation effects-link calculations for earth-space paths," Tech. Report P-7376-TR1, 80 pp., Environmental Research and Technology, Inc, Concord, MA (1979).
© 2009 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers

Citation

Steven T. Fiorino ; Richard J. Bartell ; Matthew J. Krizo ; Daniel J. Fedyk ; Kenneth P. Moore, et al.
"Worldwide assessments of laser radar tactical scenario performance variability for diverse low altitude atmospheric conditions at 1.0642 μm and 1.557 μm", J. Appl. Remote Sens. 3(1), 033521 (March 31, 2009). ; http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/1.3122349


Figures

Tables

References

R. J. Bartell, G. P. Perram, S. T. Fiorino, S. N. Long, M. J. Houle, C. A. Rice, Z. P. Manning, M. J. Krizo, D. W. Bunch, and L. E. Gravley, "Methodology for comparing worldwide performance of diverse weight-constrained high energy laser systems," Proc. SPIE 5792, 76-87 (2005)
M. F. Squires, B. A. Bietler, S.T . Fiorino, D. L. Parks, F. W. Youkhana, and H. D. Smith, "A method for creating regional and worldwide datasets of extreme and average values," Proc. Inst. Environ. Sci. Annu. Meet., pp. 6-11 (1995).
A. J. Bussey, J. R. Roadcap, R. R. Beland, and G. Y. Jumper, "Master data base for optical turbulence research in support of airborne laser," U.S. Air Force Res. Lab. Tech. Rep. AFRL-VS-TR-2000-1545 (2000).
P. Koepke, M. Hess, I. Schult, and E.P. Shettle, "Global aerosol data set," MPI Meteorologie Hamburg Rep. 243, 44 pp. (1997).
S. T. Fiorino, R. J. Bartell, G. P. Perram, D. W. Bunch, L. E. Gravley, C. A. Rice, Z. P. Manning, and M. J. Krizo, "The HELEEOS atmospheric effects package: a probabilistic method for evaluating uncertainty in low-altitude high energy laser effectiveness," J. Dir Energy 1(4), 347-360 (2006).
S. G. Gathman, A. M. J. van Eijk, and L. H. Cohen, "Characterizing large aerosols in the lowest levels of the marine atmosphere," Proc. SPIE 3433, 41-52 (1998)
P. A. Frederickson, K. L. Davidson, C. R. Zeisse, and C. S. Bendall, "Estimates of the refractive index structure parameter (Cn2) over the ocean using bulk methods," J. Appl. Meterol. 39, 1770 (2000).
L. S. Rothman, C. P. Rinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J. Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, R. R. Gamanche, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, and P. Varanasi, The HITRAN Molecular Spectroscopic Database and HAWKS (Hitran Atmospheric Workstation) 2004 ed. (2004).
W. J. Wiscombe, "Improved Mie scattering algorithms," Appl. Opt. 19(9), 1505-1510 (1980
M. Hess, P. Koepke, and I. Schult, "Optical properties of aerosols and clouds: the software package OPAC," Bull. Am. Met. Soc. 79, 831-844 (1998)
E. P. Shettle and R. W. Fenn, "Models for the aerosols of the lower atmosphere and the effects of humidity variations on their optical properties," Air Force Geophys. Lab. Tech. Rep. AFGL-TR-79-0214 (1979).
S. T. Fiorino, R. J. Bartell, M. J. Krizo, G. L. Caylor, K. P. Moore, and S. J. Cusumano, "Validation of a worldwide physics-based high-spectral resolution atmospheric characterization and propagation package for UV to RF wavelengths," Proc. SPIE 7090, 70900I (2008)
J. S. Marshall and W. McK. Palmer, "The distribution of raindrops with size," J. Meterol. 5, 165-166 (1948).
R. E. Hufnagel, "Propagation through atmospheric turbulence" The Infrared Handbook, W. L. Wolfe and G. J. Zissis, Eds., Infrared Information Analysis Center, Ann Arbor, MI (1985).
R. R. Beland, "Propagation through atmospheric optical turbulence," in Atmospheric Propagation of Radiation, pp. 157-232, F.G. Smith, Ed., The Infrared and Electro-Optical Systems Handbook, Vol. 2, SPIE Press, Bellingham, WA (1993).
L. E. Gravley, S. T. Fiorino, R. J. Bartell, G. P. Perram, M. J. Krizo, and K. Le, "Comparison of climatological optical turbulence profiles to standard, statistical, and numerical models using HELEEOS," J. Dir. Energy 3(1), 347-362 (2007).
S. T. Fiorino, R. J. Bartell, J. D. Eckel, M. J. Krizo, and S. J. Cusumano, "Application and impacts of ground-to-space cloud free line of sight probabilities to air-to-ground high energy laser engagement scenarios," Proc. 9th Ann. Directed Energy Symp., Albuquerque, NM (2006).
S. T. Fiorino, R. J. Bartell, G. P. Perram, M. J. Krizo, D. J. Fedyk, B. W. Wisdom, and S. J. Cusumano, "Worldwide estimates and uncertainty assessments of laser propagation for diverse geometries for paths in the altitude regime of 3 km and below at wavelengths of 0.355 μm to 10.6 μm," Proc. SPIE 6551 655104 (2007)
G.W . Kamerman, "Laser radar," in Active Electro-Optical Systems, pp. 1-76, C.S. Fox, Ed., The Infrared and Electro-Optical Systems Handbook, Vol. 6, SPIE Press, Bellingham, WA (1993).
R. K. Crane and D. W. Blood, "Handbook for the estimation of microwave propagation effects-link calculations for earth-space paths," Tech. Report P-7376-TR1, 80 pp., Environmental Research and Technology, Inc, Concord, MA (1979).

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