Research Papers

Neural network cloud screening algorithm, Part I: A synthetic case over land using micro-windows in O2> and CO2> near infrared absorption bands with nadir viewing

[+] Author Affiliations
Thomas E. Taylor

Department of Atmospheric Sciences, Colorado State University, 1371 Campus Delivery, Fort Collins, Colorado 80523

D. M. O'Brien

Cooperative Institute for Research in the Atmosphere, Fort Collins, CO 80523

J. Appl. Remote Sens. 3(1), 033548 (September 9, 2009). doi:10.1117/1.3239515
History: Received May 28, 2009; Revised August 6, 2009; Accepted August 24, 2009; September 9, 2009; Online September 09, 2009
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Open Access Open Access

Abstract

A neural network is presented for estimating cloud water and ice paths, effective scattering heights of cloud water and ice, and column water vapor. The cloud water and ice are then used to classify scenes as either clear or cloudy using a simple threshold test of 2 gm−2> for water and 10 gm−2> for ice. Training of the neural networks was performed using high resolution spectra in micro-windows of O2> and CO2> near infrared absorption bands generated from an ensemble of analyzed meteorological fields from ECMWF and surface properties from MODIS. An independent test data set was generated using the same radiative transfermodel, but coupled with atmospheric profiles derived from CloudSat and Calipso data. Analysis indicates that the algorithmprovides approximately 75-90% accuracy with a 95-99% confidence level for classifying scenes as either cloudy or clear over land surfaces in nadir viewing geometry. These estimates are shown to be robust, in the sense that they are insensitive to realistic instrumental errors, errors in the meteorological analyses and surface properties, and errors in the simulations used for training.

References

D. M. O'Brien and P. J. Rayner, "Global observations of the carbon budget 2. CO2> column from differential absorption of reflected sunlight in the 1.61 μm band of CO2>," J. Geophys. Res. 107(D18), 4354 (2002).
D. Crisp, R. Atlas, F.-M. Breon, L. R. Brown, J. Burrows, P. Ciais, B. J. Connor, S. C. Doney, I. Y. Fung, D. J. Jacob, C. E. Miller, D. O'Brien, S. Pawson, J. T. Randerson, P. Rayner, R. J. Salawitch, S. P. Sander, B. Sen, G. L. Stephens, P. P. Tans, G. C. Toon, P. O. Wennberg, S. C. Wofsy, Y. L. Yung, Z. Kuang, B. Chudasama, G. Sprague, B. Weiss, R. Pollock, D. Kenyon, and S. Schroll, "The Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO) mission," Adv. Space Res. 34, 700-709 (2004).
F. Chevallier, "Sampled databases of 60-level atmospheric profiles from the ECMWF analyses," SAF Programme Research Report 4, EUMETSAT/ECMWF, Am Kavalleriesand 31, Postfach D-64297 Darmstadt, Germany (2001).
"Committee on Earth Observation Satellites: The Worldwide Reference System (WRS)," (2009). http://ceos.cnes.fr:8100/cdrom-00/ceos1/satellit/landsat7/wrs.htm.
C. Cox and W. H. Munk, "The measurement of the roughness of the sea surface from photographs of the sun's glitter," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 44, 838-850 (1954).
E. C. Monahan and I. O'Muircheartaigh, "Optimal power-law description of oceanic whitecap coverage dependence on wind speed," J. Phys. Oceanogr. 10, 2094-2099 (1980).
A. K. Heidinger, C. O'Dell, R. Bennartz, and T. Greenwald, "The successive-order-of-interaction radiative transfer model: Part I: Model development," J. Appl. Meteorol. Clim. 45, 1388-1402 (2006).
C. O'Dell, A. K. Heidinger, T. Greenwald, P. Bauer, and R. Bennartz, "The successive-order-of-interaction radiative transfer model: Part II: Model performance and applications," J. Appl. Meteorol. Clim. 45, 1403-1413 (2006).
C. W. O'Dell, "Acceleration of multiple-scattering, hyperspectral radiative transfer calculations via low-streams interpolation," J. Geophys. Res. (2009). submitted.
D. Ivanova, D. L. Mitchell, W. P. Arnott, and M. Poellot, "A GCM parameterization for bimodal size spectra and ice mass removal rates in mid-latitude cirrus clouds," Atmospheric Research 59-60, 89-113 (2001).
B. A. Baum, A. J. Heymsfield, P. Yang, and S. T. Bedka, "Bulk scattering properties for the remote sensing of ice clouds. Part I: microphysical data and models," J. Appl. Meteorol. 44, 1885-1895 (2005).
B. A. Baum, P. Yang, A. J. Heymsfield, S. Platnick, M. D. King, Y.-X. Hu, and S. T. Bedka, "Bulk scattering properties for the remote sensing of ice clouds. Part II: narrowband models," J. Appl. Meteorol. 44, 1896-1911 (2005).
B. A. Baum, "The development of ice cloud scattering models for use in remote sensing applications," (2009). http://www.ssec.wisc.edu/ baum/Cirrus/IceCloudModels.html.
K. N. Bower, T. W. Choularton, J. Latham, M. B. Baker, and J. Jensen, "A parameterization of warm clouds for use in atmospheric general circulation models," J. Atmos. Sci. 51, 2722-2732 (1994).
M. T. Hagan, H. B. Demuth, and M. Beale, Neural network design, PWS Publishing Company (1996).
V. M. Krasnopolsky, B. H. Gemmill, and L. C. Breaker, "A neural network multiparameter algorithm for SSM/I ocean retrievals: comparisons and validations," Remote Sens. Environ. 73, 133-142 (2000).
W. J. Blackwell, "A neural-network technique for the retrieval of atmospheric temperature and moisture profiles from high spectral resolution sounding data," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 43(11), 2535-2546 (2005).
F. Aires, W. B. Rossow, N. A. Scott, and A. Chedin, "Remote sensing from the infrared atmospheric sounding interferometer instrument: 2. Simultaneous retrieval of temperature, water vapor and ozone atmospheric profiles," J. Geophys. Res. 107(D22) (2002).
T. Kavzoglu and P. M. Mather, "The use of backpropagating artificial neural networks in land cover classificaton," Int. J. Remote Sens. 24(23), 4907-4938 (2003).
K. L. Priddy and P. E. Keller, Artificial neural networks: an introduction, SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering, Bellingham, Washington, U.S.A. (2005).
G. L. Stephens, Remote sensing of the lower atmosphere, an introduction, Oxford University Press, New York (1994).
E. P. Shettle and R. W. Fenn, "Models for the aerosols of the lower atmosphere and the effects of humidity variations on their optical properties," Technical report Environmental research papers, No. 676, AFGL-TR-79-0214, Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscom Air Force Base, Massachusetts 01731 (1979).
D. O'Brien, I. Polonsky, P. Stephens, and T. E. Taylor, "Feasibility of cloud screening using proxy photon path length distributions derived from high resolution spectra in the near infrared," J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. (2009). accepted.
H. Boesch, G. C. Toon, B. Sen, R. A. Washenfelder, P. O. Wennberg, M. Buchwitz, R. de Beek, J. P. Burrows, D. Crisp, M. Christi, B. J. Connor, V. Natraj, and Y. L. Yung, "Space-based near-infrared CO2 measurements: Testing the Orbiting Carbon Observatory retrieval algorithm and validation concept using SCIAMACHY observations over Park Falls, Wisconsin," J. Geophys. Res. 111 (2006).
© 2009 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers

Citation

Thomas E. Taylor and D. M. O'Brien
"Neural network cloud screening algorithm, Part I: A synthetic case over land using micro-windows in O2> and CO2> near infrared absorption bands with nadir viewing", J. Appl. Remote Sens. 3(1), 033548 (September 9, 2009). ; http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/1.3239515


Figures

Tables

References

D. M. O'Brien and P. J. Rayner, "Global observations of the carbon budget 2. CO2> column from differential absorption of reflected sunlight in the 1.61 μm band of CO2>," J. Geophys. Res. 107(D18), 4354 (2002).
D. Crisp, R. Atlas, F.-M. Breon, L. R. Brown, J. Burrows, P. Ciais, B. J. Connor, S. C. Doney, I. Y. Fung, D. J. Jacob, C. E. Miller, D. O'Brien, S. Pawson, J. T. Randerson, P. Rayner, R. J. Salawitch, S. P. Sander, B. Sen, G. L. Stephens, P. P. Tans, G. C. Toon, P. O. Wennberg, S. C. Wofsy, Y. L. Yung, Z. Kuang, B. Chudasama, G. Sprague, B. Weiss, R. Pollock, D. Kenyon, and S. Schroll, "The Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO) mission," Adv. Space Res. 34, 700-709 (2004).
F. Chevallier, "Sampled databases of 60-level atmospheric profiles from the ECMWF analyses," SAF Programme Research Report 4, EUMETSAT/ECMWF, Am Kavalleriesand 31, Postfach D-64297 Darmstadt, Germany (2001).
"Committee on Earth Observation Satellites: The Worldwide Reference System (WRS)," (2009). http://ceos.cnes.fr:8100/cdrom-00/ceos1/satellit/landsat7/wrs.htm.
C. Cox and W. H. Munk, "The measurement of the roughness of the sea surface from photographs of the sun's glitter," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 44, 838-850 (1954).
E. C. Monahan and I. O'Muircheartaigh, "Optimal power-law description of oceanic whitecap coverage dependence on wind speed," J. Phys. Oceanogr. 10, 2094-2099 (1980).
A. K. Heidinger, C. O'Dell, R. Bennartz, and T. Greenwald, "The successive-order-of-interaction radiative transfer model: Part I: Model development," J. Appl. Meteorol. Clim. 45, 1388-1402 (2006).
C. O'Dell, A. K. Heidinger, T. Greenwald, P. Bauer, and R. Bennartz, "The successive-order-of-interaction radiative transfer model: Part II: Model performance and applications," J. Appl. Meteorol. Clim. 45, 1403-1413 (2006).
C. W. O'Dell, "Acceleration of multiple-scattering, hyperspectral radiative transfer calculations via low-streams interpolation," J. Geophys. Res. (2009). submitted.
D. Ivanova, D. L. Mitchell, W. P. Arnott, and M. Poellot, "A GCM parameterization for bimodal size spectra and ice mass removal rates in mid-latitude cirrus clouds," Atmospheric Research 59-60, 89-113 (2001).
B. A. Baum, A. J. Heymsfield, P. Yang, and S. T. Bedka, "Bulk scattering properties for the remote sensing of ice clouds. Part I: microphysical data and models," J. Appl. Meteorol. 44, 1885-1895 (2005).
B. A. Baum, P. Yang, A. J. Heymsfield, S. Platnick, M. D. King, Y.-X. Hu, and S. T. Bedka, "Bulk scattering properties for the remote sensing of ice clouds. Part II: narrowband models," J. Appl. Meteorol. 44, 1896-1911 (2005).
B. A. Baum, "The development of ice cloud scattering models for use in remote sensing applications," (2009). http://www.ssec.wisc.edu/ baum/Cirrus/IceCloudModels.html.
K. N. Bower, T. W. Choularton, J. Latham, M. B. Baker, and J. Jensen, "A parameterization of warm clouds for use in atmospheric general circulation models," J. Atmos. Sci. 51, 2722-2732 (1994).
M. T. Hagan, H. B. Demuth, and M. Beale, Neural network design, PWS Publishing Company (1996).
V. M. Krasnopolsky, B. H. Gemmill, and L. C. Breaker, "A neural network multiparameter algorithm for SSM/I ocean retrievals: comparisons and validations," Remote Sens. Environ. 73, 133-142 (2000).
W. J. Blackwell, "A neural-network technique for the retrieval of atmospheric temperature and moisture profiles from high spectral resolution sounding data," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 43(11), 2535-2546 (2005).
F. Aires, W. B. Rossow, N. A. Scott, and A. Chedin, "Remote sensing from the infrared atmospheric sounding interferometer instrument: 2. Simultaneous retrieval of temperature, water vapor and ozone atmospheric profiles," J. Geophys. Res. 107(D22) (2002).
T. Kavzoglu and P. M. Mather, "The use of backpropagating artificial neural networks in land cover classificaton," Int. J. Remote Sens. 24(23), 4907-4938 (2003).
K. L. Priddy and P. E. Keller, Artificial neural networks: an introduction, SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering, Bellingham, Washington, U.S.A. (2005).
G. L. Stephens, Remote sensing of the lower atmosphere, an introduction, Oxford University Press, New York (1994).
E. P. Shettle and R. W. Fenn, "Models for the aerosols of the lower atmosphere and the effects of humidity variations on their optical properties," Technical report Environmental research papers, No. 676, AFGL-TR-79-0214, Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscom Air Force Base, Massachusetts 01731 (1979).
D. O'Brien, I. Polonsky, P. Stephens, and T. E. Taylor, "Feasibility of cloud screening using proxy photon path length distributions derived from high resolution spectra in the near infrared," J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. (2009). accepted.
H. Boesch, G. C. Toon, B. Sen, R. A. Washenfelder, P. O. Wennberg, M. Buchwitz, R. de Beek, J. P. Burrows, D. Crisp, M. Christi, B. J. Connor, V. Natraj, and Y. L. Yung, "Space-based near-infrared CO2 measurements: Testing the Orbiting Carbon Observatory retrieval algorithm and validation concept using SCIAMACHY observations over Park Falls, Wisconsin," J. Geophys. Res. 111 (2006).

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