An unsupervised neuro-fuzzy system, Gaussian fuzzy self-organizing map (GFSOM), is proposed for hyperspectral image classification. This algorithm operates by integrating an unsupervised neural network with a Gaussian function-based fuzzy system. We also explore the potential for hyperspectral image analysis of three other artificial intelligence (AI)-based unsupervised techniques popular for multispectral image analysis: self-organizing map (SOM), fuzzy c-mean (FCM), and descending fuzzy learning vector quantization (DFLVQ). To apply these methods effectively and efficiently to hyperspectral imagery, an optimal learning sample selection strategy and a prototype initialization system are developed. An experimental study on classifying an EO-1/Hyperion hyperspectral image illustrates that GFSOM achieves the best accuracy, since it can model both the central tendency characteristics of input samples and capture the dispersion characteristics of data within a cluster. By adopting the system initialization approach developed here, all the AI-based techniques have the capability to classify hyperspectral images and can deliver acceptable accuracy, which could consequently accelerate their transitions from the multispectral to the hyperspectral field.