The problem of atmospheric intervention has received considerable attention from researchers in remote sensing who have developed a range of methods, either simple or sophisticated. The sophisticated methods require auxiliary information about the state of the atmosphere which is obtained either from standard databases or from simultaneous in-situ field measurements or by iterative techniques. It has been found that the darkest pixel atmospheric correction (DP) is one of the most effective atmospheric correction methods especially for visible spectral bands. The DP is the simplest and fully image-based correction method. The integrated use of the DP basic theory and the radiative transfer equation is implemented in this study. Indeed, this leads to the development of the proposed ‘image-based atmospheric correction algorithm.’ The proposed algorithm retrieves the aerosol optical thickness (AOT) only for areas with urban and maritime aerosols. The effectiveness of this algorithm is assessed by comparing the AOT values retrieved from the proposed ‘image-based atmospheric correction algorithm’ after applied to Landsat images with those measured in-situ both from MICROTOPS II hand-held sun photometer and the CIMEL sun photometer (AERONET). It has been found that the AOT values retrieved from the proposed algorithm were very close with those measured from the CIMEL sun photometer for the Limassol area in Cyprus.