The 1-m NAIP image allowed clear, visual identification of all dominant land cover classes based on the spectral contrast among the live vegetation (juniper, mesquite, herbaceous) and senescent herbaceous or nonvegetative components (paved road, shadow, exposed soil, water) [Figs. 2(a), 2(b), 3(a), and 3(b)]. Previous studies have found significant differences in reflectance between Ashe juniper (Juniperus ashei Buchholz), mesquite, water, exposed soil, and herbaceous plants.24,31,44,45 In addition, reflectance variation within a deciduous crown is greater than that within a coniferous tree crown because of the nonconical shape, larger branches, and shaded area caused by the neighboring branches.46 Thus, respective training samples to perform image classification were manually extracted from isolated trees and areas on the image.47 Training samples consisted of 5 to 10 polygons, each having 25 to 50 pixels, from pure canopy or each land cover type at identified locations on the ground and on the image. The SVM analysis was performed for the following land cover classes: juniper, mesquite, live herbaceous, senescent herbaceous, bare ground, water, shadow, and paved road. Exposed soil, shadow, dirt roads, live and senescent herbaceous land cover classes were grouped together into a nonwoody class that resulted in a five-category final classification map for each site: juniper, mesquite, nonwoody, water, and paved road.