A random number generator was used in this work to create random water samples. By generating a uniformly distributed random number between 0 and 68 units for chlorophyll, a second uniformly distributed random number between 0 and 24 units for suspended materials, and a third uniformly distributed random number between 0 and 14 units for CDOM, a random water type could be simulated in Hydrolight, i.e., these three numbers represent the concentrations of chlorophyll (), suspended materials (), and CDOM () that were used as input to Hydrolight, respectively. Hydrolight then outputs the water-leaving signal (expressed as spectral radiance just above the water surface) associated with the random water sample, which represents one pixel in the scene. This process was repeated thousands of times to simulate a scene. In this study, 2000 randomly generated pixels were created, as shown in Step 1 of Fig. 2. It should be noted that this is a particularly stressing approach, as it generates simulated water samples spanning the entire test space (e.g., low CDOM and high suspended materials, high CDOM and low suspended materials, etc.), even though this full range is unlikely in nature.