The hyperspectral processing chain represented in Fig.1 consists of three segments: satellite segment, ground segment, and user segment. The on-board instrument produces data in raw format. Raw data are digital counts from the analog-to-digital converter (ADC), not yet diminished by the dark signal that has been averaged in time. Raw data are compressed, with or without loss, and downloaded to the ground station(s), where the data are decompressed, converted to radiance values, and corrected for instrumental effects (e.g., striping of push-broom sensors). The calibrated data are geometrically corrected for orbital effects, georeferenced, and possibly orthorectified. All geometric operations subsequent to calibration have little impact on the quality of data products. Eventually, data products are stored in archives, generally with highly redundant formats, e.g., double-precision floating point per pixel radiance value, with spectral radiance measured in .