In remote sensing systems, a major problem lies in the limited availability of bandwidth and resources necessary for acquisition, processing and transmission of the images related to a given terrestrial area, as acquired by the sensors mounted on an airborne or spaceborne remote platform. Since the spatial, spectral, and radiometric resolutions of optical and radar sensors are getting finer and finer, the amount of collected data is huge. New-generation sensors aim at increasing the resolution even further. As a consequence, powerful compression algorithms are required to match the available channel resources. Moreover, many Earth observation satellites are required to transmit data on-ground in real time. This means that compression devices with very high throughput are requested. In science missions, one of the challenges is to have the capability to transmit to the ground stations a high amount of data through a limited downlink. Thanks to onboard data compression, it will be possible to transmit all of the data generated onboard, without any restriction, maximizing the science return.