Global environmental change (GEC) is a combination of large-scale biological, geomorphological, and physical changes on the Earth’s surface as a result of human activities and natural processes. GEC has manifested itself in different ways, such as global warming, ozone depletion, acid rain, desertification, and biodiversity reduction. The United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climatic Change pointed out that global warming is undoubted, and warming will continue. GEC is significantly impacting society, has attracted considerable attention from various countries, and has become a major topic for researchers. In November 2007, officials and researchers from 73 countries and 46 international organizations participated in the Group on Earth Observations Ministerial Summit held in Cape Town, South Africa, and released the “Cape Town Declaration.” It recognized that nations are facing major environmental, social, and economic challenges as a consequence of global change; the continued operation of terrestrial, oceanic, airborne, and space-based observation networks is critical for informed decision making; GEC has unique spatial and temporal evolutionary characteristics, and studying GEC requires a variety of theories and techniques because of its complexity. Earth observation is one of the most promising techniques and has advantages in monitoring the atmosphere, oceans, land, etc., in comparison to conventional methods, not only because of its operational, large-scale monitoring capability, but also due to its ability to quickly and dynamically monitor extreme environmental events. Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) is a commonly used class of sensors for Earth observation, with all-weather, day-night imaging capability. SAR has become one of the most sophisticated tools available for land use or land cover mapping, change detection for urban areas, and impacts of human activities related to environmental change. RADARSAT-2 is Canada’s newest commercial SAR satellite. The SAR sensor on RADARSAT-2 has been designed with significant, powerful technical advancements, which include high-resolution imaging, flexibility in selection of polarization, left- and right-looking imaging options, and more precise measurements of spacecraft position and attitude. Together, these have the powerful capabilities RADARSAT-2 has for contributing to GEC research.