The urban heat island (UHI) effect caused by urbanization generally leads to adverse economic and environmental impacts. Thus, a detailed assessment of the thermal properties over individual land cover types at different spatial resolutions is required to better understand the establishment of UHI. Two scale levels are utilized to examine surface thermal characteristics in the case of Shijiazhuang, China. At the regional level, Landsat TM data are used to extract subpixel impervious surface area (ISA) and to inverse land surface temperature (LST) by means of multiple endmember spectral mixture analysis. Urban thermal characteristics are analyzed by relating the LST to normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and ISA. On the other hand, thermal airborne spectrographic imager data, with a high spatial resolution, are employed to describe the spatial distribution of urban thermal patterns at the local level. Results indicate that there is an approximate linear relationship among LST, NDVI, and ISA. In addition, the thermal characteristics over each land cover type are consistent at both levels, suggesting UHI is evident at Shijiazhuang and impervious surface is contributing most to this phenomenon. This confirms that different spatial scales are requested in UHI studies.