Agro-geoinformatics, the agricultural-related geoinformation technology, is critical for agricultural policy formulation and decision making, land use monitoring, agricultural sustainability, crop acreage and yield estimation, disaster assessment, bioenergy crop inventory, food security policy, environmental assessment, carbon accounting, and other research topics that are of vital importance to American agriculture and its economy. Agro-geoinformatics addresses issues such as collecting (including field surveys and remote sensing), processing, storing, archiving, preservation, retrieving, transmitting, accessing, visualization, analyzing, synthesizing, presenting, and disseminating geospatially distributed agricultural geoinformation. The geospatially distributed in situ data of crop plants and fields are collected in person or measured by sensor networks while large scale field level or regional measurement of crops growth and land cover condition could be remotely sensed via satellite or aerial sensors. Recent advances in remote sensing and sensor networks have created a suite of new opportunities as well as challenges in agro-geoinformatics, and incurred an increased interest in recent years to further promote this technology, as evidenced by numerous new research and applications on this topic. This special section provides a snapshot of the most recent research developments in methods, technologies, and applications of remote sensing and sensor networks in agro-geoinformation. Many of the papers included in this special section are extended versions of materials that were presented at the Third International Conference on Agro-Geoinformatics (Agro-Geoinformatics 2014) in Beijing, China, in August 2014.