Meteorological measurements were made at upwind and downwind locations with the instrumentation in Table 2. Vertical temperature, humidity, and wind speed profiles were measured using two 15.3 m towers, one upwind and one downwind as shown in Fig. 1. Each tower had five humidity/temperature sensors at 1.5, 2.5, 3.9, 6.2, and 9.7 m agl and 3-cup anemometers at 2.5, 3.9, 6.2, 9.7, and 15.3 m agl. Wind direction was measured at 15.3 m using a wind vane instead of the typical 10 m due to the fact that LIDAR measurements were made at higher elevations (up to 200 m agl) and the 15.3 m measurement height was reasoned to provide a better representation of both ground level and higher elevation wind direction than the 10-m height. Additionally, a meteorological station monitored wind speed, wind direction, temperature, relative humidity, precipitation, barometric pressure, and incoming solar radiation at 5 m agl at the air-quality trailer (AQT) location. Three pairs of three-dimensional sonic anemometers and infrared gas analyzers were deployed, one at an upwind location and one each downwind of the two fields of interest, to characterize upwind and downwind turbulences, as well as vertical fluxes of latent heat (evaporation), sensible heat, carbon dioxide, and horizontal momentum. Bulk density and soil moisture were quantified several times throughout the study, with calculations performed as described in 17.