Sensor and Platform Technologies

On-orbit noise characterization of MODIS reflective solar bands

[+] Author Affiliations
Amit Angal, Xu Geng

NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, MODIS Characterization Support Team, Greenbelt, Maryland 20771, United States

Science Systems and Applications Inc., 10210 Greenbelt Road, Lanham, Maryland 20706, United States

Xiaoxiong Xiong

NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, MODIS Characterization Support Team, Greenbelt, Maryland 20771, United States

NASA/GSFC, Sciences and Exploration Directorate, Greenbelt, Maryland 20771, United States

Junqiang Sun

NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, MODIS Characterization Support Team, Greenbelt, Maryland 20771, United States

Global Science and Technology, 7855 Walker Drive, Suite 200, Greenbelt, Maryland 20770, United States

J. Appl. Remote Sens. 9(1), 094092 (Oct 06, 2015). doi:10.1117/1.JRS.9.094092
History: Received April 1, 2015; Accepted September 9, 2015
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Abstract.  The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), launched on the Terra and Aqua spacecrafts, was designed to collect complementary and comprehensive measurements of the Earth’s properties on a global scale. The 20 reflective solar bands (RSBs), covering a wavelength range from 0.41 to 2.1μm, are calibrated on-orbit using regularly scheduled solar diffuser (SD) observations. Although primarily used for on-orbit gain derivation, the SD observations also facilitate the characterization of the detector signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). In addition to the calibration requirement of 2% for the reflectance factors and 5% for the radiances, the required SNRs are also specified for all RSB at their typical scene radiances. A methodology to characterize the on-orbit SNR for the MODIS RSB is presented. Overall performance shows that a majority of the RSB continue to meet the specification, therefore performing well. A temporal decrease in the SNR, observed in the short-wavelength bands, is attributed primarily to the decrease in their detector responses. With the exception of the inoperable and noisy detectors in band 6 identified prelaunch, the detectors of Aqua MODIS RSB perform better than Terra MODIS. The approach formulated for on-orbit SNR characterization can also be used by other sensors that use on-board SDs for their on-orbit calibration (e.g., Suomi National Polar-Orbiting Partnership [SNPP]-Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite).

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© 2015 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers

Citation

Amit Angal ; Xiaoxiong Xiong ; Junqiang Sun and Xu Geng
"On-orbit noise characterization of MODIS reflective solar bands", J. Appl. Remote Sens. 9(1), 094092 (Oct 06, 2015). ; http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/1.JRS.9.094092


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