Center-oriented hyperspectral image clustering methods have been widely applied to hyperspectral remote sensing image processing; however, the drawbacks are obvious, including the over-simplicity of computing models and underutilized spatial information. In recent years, some studies have been conducted trying to improve this situation. We introduce the artificial bee colony (ABC) and Markov random field (MRF) algorithms to propose an ABC–MRF-cluster model to solve the problems mentioned above. In this model, a typical ABC algorithm framework is adopted in which cluster centers and iteration conditional model algorithm’s results are considered as feasible solutions and objective functions separately, and MRF is modified to be capable of dealing with the clustering problem. Finally, four datasets and two indices are used to show that the application of ABC-cluster and ABC–MRF-cluster methods could help to obtain better image accuracy than conventional methods. Specifically, the ABC-cluster method is superior when used for a higher power of spectral discrimination, whereas the ABC–MRF-cluster method can provide better results when used for an adjusted random index. In experiments on simulated images with different signal-to-noise ratios, ABC-cluster and ABC–MRF-cluster showed good stability.