The aforementioned approach was tested in Shanghai, a megalopolis situated on the east coast of China and geospatially ranging from 31°32′N-31°27′N to 120°52′E-121°45′E, with a land area of more than and a population of over 19 million in 2012. While the well-built central area is confined inside the outer loop highway, the current urban boundaries have extended far beyond the outer loop, with the recent major urban sprawl taking place outside the loop.22,23 Shanghai can be viewed as being composed of three different developmental patterns, including a highly developed commercial and residential center (circumscribed by the outer loop) with high-density population and buildings; suburban areas surrounding the city center, now being converted to “new cities”; and rural areas located outside urban cores of various scales and mainly characterized by crop fields (Fig. 2). After evolving through several different regimes over more than a century, the city has now presented a typical amalgamation of old and new land uses, ground materials, and urban structures. There is a heavy mixture of diverse land use types in the urban and suburban areas, such as parks, settlements, croplands, grasslands, and forests. Most buildings in the urban core are old and fragmented, whereas those in the newly developed regions are more regularly shaped and oriented. The braided river system is intricate and highly convoluted at the tip of the Yangtze Delta. After decades of land use change and urbanization, this braided river system has been seriously severed into numerous isolated stream segments and small ponds in the city. With variations in size, water depth, and pollution level, these water bodies present a severe spectral complication. On the other hand, the agricultural features vary with soil conditions and plant phenology. Rice is the dominant crop type in summer and autumn, mixed with shallow water in the field for a long time during the growing season, and rapeseed and winter wheat are the principal crops in winter and spring.