Forest above-ground biomass (AGB) is an important indicator for understanding the global carbon cycle. It is hard to obtain a geographically and statistically representative AGB dataset, which is limited by unpredictable environmental conditions and high economical cost. A spatially explicit AGB reference map was produced by airborne LiDAR data and calibrated by field measurements. Three different sampling strategies were designed to sample the reference AGB, PALSAR backscatter, and texture variables. Two parametric and four nonparametric models were established and validated based on the sampled dataset. Results showed that random stratified sampling that used LiDAR-evaluated forest age as stratification knowledge performed the best in the AGB sampling. The addition of backscatter texture variables improved the parametric model performance by an increase of 21% and a root-mean-square error (RMSE) decrease of . One of the four nonparametric models, namely, the random forest regression model, obtained comparable performance (, ) to the parametric model. Higher estimation errors occurred in the forest stands with lower canopy cover or higher AGB levels. In conclusion, incorporating airborne LiDAR and PALSAR data was proven to be efficient in upscaling the AGB estimation to regional scale, which provides some guidance for future forest management over cold and arid areas.