Research Papers

NEON: the first continental-scale ecological observatory with airborne remote sensing of vegetation canopy biochemistry and structure

[+] Author Affiliations
Thomas U. Kampe, Brian R. Johnson, Michele Kuester, Michael Keller

National Ecological Observatory Network, Inc., 5340 Airport Blvd, Boulder, CO 80301

J. Appl. Remote Sens. 4(1), 043510 (March 17, 2010). doi:10.1117/1.3361375
History: Received October 21, 2009; Accepted February 18, 2010; March 17, 2010; Online March 17, 2010
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Open Access Open Access

Abstract

The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) is an ecological observation platform for discovering, understanding and forecasting the impacts of climate change, land use change, and invasive species on continental-scale ecology. NEON will operate for 30 years and gather long-term data on ecological response changes and on feedbacks with the geosphere, hydrosphere, and atmosphere. Local ecological measurements at sites distributed within 20 ecoclimatic domains across the contiguous United States, Alaska, Hawaii, and Puerto Rico will be coordinated with high resolution, regional airborne remote sensing observations. The Airborne Observation Platform (AOP) is an aircraft platform carrying remote sensing instrumentation designed to achieve sub-meter to meter scale ground resolution, bridging scales from organisms and individual stands to satellite-based remote sensing. AOP instrumentation consists of a VIS/SWIR imaging spectrometer, a scanning small-footprint waveform LiDAR for 3-D canopy structure measurements and a high resolution airborne digital camera. AOP data will be openly available to scientists and will provide quantitative information on land use change and changes in ecological structure and chemistry including the presence and effects of invasive species. AOP science objectives, key mission requirements, and development status are presented including an overview of near-term risk-reduction and prototyping activities.

References

M. Keller, D. S. Schimel, W. W. Hargrove, and F. M. Hoffman, "A continental strategy for the National Ecological Observatory Network," Front. Ecol. Environ. 6(5), 282-284 (2008)
C. Field, R. DeFries, D. Foster, M. Grove, R. Jackson, B. Law, D. Lodge, D. Peters, and D. Schimel, "Integrated science and education plan for the National Ecological Observatory Network," (23 Oct 2006) (http://www.neoninc.org/documents/ISEP).
Committee on the National Ecological Observatory Network and National Research Council, "NEON: Addressing the nation's environmental challenges," National Academic Press, Washington D.C. (2003).
W.W. Hargrove, F.M. Hoffman, and B.E. Law, "New Analysis Reveals Representativeness of AmeriFlux Network," EOS Trans. AGU 84(48), 529 (2003).
P. J. Sellers, F. G. Hall, G. Asrar, D. E. Strebel, and R. E. Murphy, "An overview of the First International Satellite Land Surface Climatology Project (ISLSCP) Field Experiment (FIFE)," J. Geophys. Res. 97(D17), 18345-18371 (1992).
Y.-H. Lee and L. Mahrt, "Comparison of heat and moisture fluxes from a modified soil-plant-atmosphere model with observations from BOREAS," J. Geophys. Res. 109, D08103 (2004)
M. Keller, M. A. Silva-Dias, D. C. Nepstad, and M. O. Andreae, "The Large-Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia: Analyzing Regional Land Use Change Effects," in Ecosystems and Land Use Change Geophysical Monograph Series 153, R. S. DeFries, G. P. Asner & R. A. Houghton, eds., pp. 321- 334, American Geophysical Union, Washington, DC, USA. (2004).
R. A. Birdsey, R. Cook, S. Denning, P. Griffith, B. Law, J. Masek, A. Michalak, S. Ogle, D. Ojima, Y. Pan, C. Sabine, E. Sheffner, and E. Sunquist, "Investigators share improved understanding of the North American carbon cycle", Eos Trans. AGU, 88(24), 255 (2005)
W. W. Hargrove and F. M. Hoffman, "Using multivariate clustering to characterize ecoregion borders," IEEE Computing in Science and Engineering 1, 18-25 (1999).
W. W. Hargrove and F. M. Hoffman, "Potential of multivariate quantitative methods for delineation and visualization of ecoregions," Environmental Management 34(1), S39-S60 (2004)
D. S. Schimel, VEMAP Participants, and B.H. Braswell, "Continental scale variability in ecosystem processes: Models, data, and the role of disturbance" Ecological Monographs 67, 251-271 (1997).
J. M. Omernik, "Ecoregions of the conterminous United States. Map (scale 1:7,500,000)," Annals of the Association of American Geographers 77(1), 118-125 (1987).
R. G. Bailey, "Delineation of ecosystem regions," Environmental Management 7, 365-373 (1983)
H. Powell, P. J. Mulholland, H. Loescher, and T. Cilke, "The STREON Experiment - Experiments as accelerators of change in NEON," P23, 2009 LTER All Scientists Meeting, Estes Park, CO, USA (2009), (http://asm.lternet.edu/2009/posters/streon-experiment-%E2%80%93-experiments-accelerators-change-neon).
G. P. Asner and P. M. Vitousek, "Remote sensing of biological invasion and biogeochemical change," Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 102(12), 4383-4386 (2005)
G. P. Asner, R. F. Hughes, P. M. Vitousek, D. E. Knapp, T. Kennedy-Bowdoin, J. Boardman, R. E. Martin, M. Eastwood, and R. O. Green, " Invasive plants transform the three-dimensional structure of rain forests," Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 105(11), 4519-4523 (2008)
V. V. Solmonsoon, W. L. Barnes, P. W. Maymon, H. E. Montgomery, and H. Ostrow, "MODIS: advanced facility instrument for studies of the earth as a system," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 27(2), 145-153 (1989)
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S. L. Ustin, D. A. Roberts, J. A. Gamon, G. A. Asner, and R. O. Green, "Using imaging spectroscopy to study ecosystem processes and properties," Bioscience 54(6), 523-534 (2004)
D. A. Roberts, D. A., S. L. Ustin, S. Ogunjemiyo, J. Greenberg, S. Z. Dobrowski, J. Q. Chen, and T. M. Hinckley, "Spectral and structural measurements of northwest forest vegetation at leaf to landscape scales," Ecosystems 7, 545-562 (2004)
M. Clark, D. A. Roberts, and D. B. Clark, "Hyperspectral discrimination of tropical rain forest tree species at leaf to crown scales," Rem. Sens. Environ. 96(3-4), 375-398 (2005)
G. Vane, A. F. H. Goetz, and J. B. Wellman, "Airborne Imaging Spectrometer - A new tool for remote-sensing," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 22(6), 546-549 (1984).
R. O. Green, R. O., M. L. Eastwood, C. M. Sarture, T. G. Chrien, M. Aronsson, B. J. Chippendale, J. A. Faust, B. E. Pavri, C. J. Chovit, M. Solis, M. R. Olah, and O. Williams, "Imaging spectroscopy and the Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS)," Rem. Sens. Environ. 65, 227-248 (1998).
P. Mouroulis, R. O. Green, and T. G. Chrien, "Design of Pushbroom imaging spectrometers for optimal recovery of spectroscopic and spatial information," Appl. Opt. 39(13), 2210-2220 (2000)
L. F. Johnson, C. A. Hlavka, and D. L. Peterson, "Multivariate analysis of AVIRIS data for canopy biochemical estimation along the Oregon transect," Rem. Sens. Environ. 47, 216-230 (1994)
L. Surrano, S. L. Ustin, D. A. Roberts, J. A. Gamon, and J. Penuelas, "Deriving water content of chaparral vegetation from AVIRIS data," Rem. Sens. Environ. 74, 570-581 (2000)
A. F. Rahman, J. A. Gamon, D. A. Fuentes, D. A. Roberts, and D. Prentiss, "Modeling spatial distributed ecosystem flux of boreal forests using hyperspectral indices from AVIRIS imagery," J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 106(d24), 33579-33591 (2001)
G. P. Asner, G. P, D. E. Knapp, T. Kennedy-Bowdin, M. O. Jones, R. E. Martin, J. Boardman, and C. B. Fields, "Carnegie Airborne Observatory: in-flight fusion of hyperspectral and waveform light detection and ranging (wLiDAR) for three-dimensional studies of ecosystems," J. Appl. Rem. Sens. 1, 013536 (2007)
L. Guanter, V. Estelles, and J. Moreno, "Spectral calibration and atmospheric correction of ultra-fine spectral and spatial resolution remote sensing data: Application to CASI-1500 data," Rem. Sens. Environ. 109, 54-65 (2007)
H. Kaufmann, K. Segl, S. Chabrillat, S. Hofer, T. Stuffler, A. Muller, R. Richter, G. Schreier, R. Haydn, and H. Bach, "ENMAP: A Hyperspectral Sensor for Environmental Mapping and Analysis," IEEE International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium (IGARSS 2006), Denver, CO, 1617-1619 (2006)
M. E. Schaepman, K. I. Itten, D. R. Schlaepfer, J. W. Kiaser, J. Brazile, W. Debruyn, A. Neukom, H. Feusi, P. Adolph, R. Moser, T. Shilliger, L. De Vos, G. M. Brandt, P. Kohler, M. Meng, J. Piesbergen, P. Strobl, J. Gavira, G. J. Ulbrich, and R. Meynart, "APEX: Current status of the Airborne Dispersive Pushbroom Imaging Spectrometer," Proc. SPIE 5234, 202-210 (2003)
T. Valle, T. U. Kampe, P. A. Wamsley, H. Chase, G. E. Taudien, P. T. Sphuler, P. B. Johnson, and G. L. Mills, "Efficient characterization of imaging spectrometers; Application in the LWIR and MWIR," Proc. SPIE 7453, 7453-19 (2009)
W. M. Kaula, G. Schubert, R. E. Lingenfelter, W. L. Sjorgen, and W. R. Wollenhaupt, "Apollo laser altimetry and inferences as to lunar structure," Proc. 5th Lunar Sci. Conf., Houston, TX, March 18-22, 1974, Proceedings Vol 3, Pergamon Press, Inc., 3049-3058 (1974).
M. Lefsky W. B. Cohen, G. G. Parker, and D. J. Harding, "Lidar remote sensing for ecosystem studies," BioScience 52, 19-30 (2002)
J. Reitberger, P. Krzystek, and U. Stilla, "Analysis of full waveform lidar data for tree species classification," ISPRS Symposium Commission III, Photogrammetric Computer Vision and Image Analysis, PCV06, 20-22 September 2006, Bonn, Germany, International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing
J. L. Bufton, J.B. J. B. Garvin, J. F. Cavanaugh, L. Ramos-Izquierdo, T. D. Klem, W. B. Krabill, "Airborne lidar for profiling of surface topography," Opt. Eng. 30, 72-78 (1991)
D. J. Harding, M. A. Lefsky, G. G. Parker, J. B. Blair, "Laser altimetry height profiles methods and validation for closed-canopy, broadleaf forests," Rem. Sens. Environ. 76, 283-297 (2001)
R. O. Dubayah and J. B. Drake, "Lidar remote sensing of forestry," Journal of Forestry 98, 44-46 (2000).
A. L. Neuenschwander, L. A. Magruder, and M. Tyler, "Landcover classification of small-footprint, full-waveform lidar data," J. Appl. Rem. Sens. 3, 033544 (2009)
J. Reitberger, C. Schnorr, M. Heurich, P. Krzystek, and U. Stilla, "Towards 3d mapping of forests: a comparative study with first/last pulse and fill waveform lidar data," Int. Atch. Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing, and Spatial Information Sciences 37, 1397-1403 (2008).
J. B. Blair, D. L. Rabine, and M. A. Hofton, "The laser vegetation imaging sensor: a medium-altitude, digitization-only, airborne laser altimeter for mapping vegetation and topography," ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry & Remote Sensing 54, 115-122, (1999).
D. R. Streutker, N. F. Glenn, "LiDAR measurement of sagebrush steppe vegetation heights," Rem. Sens. Environ. 102, 135-145 (2006)
K. R. Sherrill, M. A. Lefsky, J. B. Bradford, and M. G. Ryan, "Forest structure estimation and pattern exploration from discrete-return lidar in subalpine forests of the central Rockies," Can. J. For. Res. 38, 2081-2096 (2008).
M. A. Lefsky, M. Keller, Y. Pang, P. B. de Camargo, and M. O. Hunter, "Revised method for forest canopy height estimation from Geoscience Laser Altimeter System waveforms," J. Appl. Rem. Sens. 1, 013537 (2007)
K. J. Thome, "Ground-look radiometric calibration approaches for remote sensing imagers in the solar reflective," ISPRS I Symposium 2002 Commission, Integrated Remote Sensing at the Global, Regional and Local Scale, 10-15 November 2002, Denver, CO, USA, International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing.
A. Huetea , K. Didana, T. Miuraa, E. P. Rodrigueza, X. Gaoa and L. G. Ferreirab, "Overview of the radiometric and biophysical performance of the MODIS vegetation indices," Rem. Sens. Environ. 83(1-2), 195-213 (2002)
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N. Buskness, Private Communication (2008).
P. M. Vitousek, C. M. D'Antonio,L. L. Loope, M. Rejmanek, and R. Westbrooks, "Introduced species: A significant component of human-caused global change," New Zealand Journal of Ecology 21(1), 1-16 (1997).
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© 2010 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers

Citation

Thomas U. Kampe ; Brian R. Johnson ; Michele Kuester and Michael Keller
"NEON: the first continental-scale ecological observatory with airborne remote sensing of vegetation canopy biochemistry and structure", J. Appl. Remote Sens. 4(1), 043510 (March 17, 2010). ; http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/1.3361375


Figures

Tables

References

M. Keller, D. S. Schimel, W. W. Hargrove, and F. M. Hoffman, "A continental strategy for the National Ecological Observatory Network," Front. Ecol. Environ. 6(5), 282-284 (2008)
C. Field, R. DeFries, D. Foster, M. Grove, R. Jackson, B. Law, D. Lodge, D. Peters, and D. Schimel, "Integrated science and education plan for the National Ecological Observatory Network," (23 Oct 2006) (http://www.neoninc.org/documents/ISEP).
Committee on the National Ecological Observatory Network and National Research Council, "NEON: Addressing the nation's environmental challenges," National Academic Press, Washington D.C. (2003).
W.W. Hargrove, F.M. Hoffman, and B.E. Law, "New Analysis Reveals Representativeness of AmeriFlux Network," EOS Trans. AGU 84(48), 529 (2003).
P. J. Sellers, F. G. Hall, G. Asrar, D. E. Strebel, and R. E. Murphy, "An overview of the First International Satellite Land Surface Climatology Project (ISLSCP) Field Experiment (FIFE)," J. Geophys. Res. 97(D17), 18345-18371 (1992).
Y.-H. Lee and L. Mahrt, "Comparison of heat and moisture fluxes from a modified soil-plant-atmosphere model with observations from BOREAS," J. Geophys. Res. 109, D08103 (2004)
M. Keller, M. A. Silva-Dias, D. C. Nepstad, and M. O. Andreae, "The Large-Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia: Analyzing Regional Land Use Change Effects," in Ecosystems and Land Use Change Geophysical Monograph Series 153, R. S. DeFries, G. P. Asner & R. A. Houghton, eds., pp. 321- 334, American Geophysical Union, Washington, DC, USA. (2004).
R. A. Birdsey, R. Cook, S. Denning, P. Griffith, B. Law, J. Masek, A. Michalak, S. Ogle, D. Ojima, Y. Pan, C. Sabine, E. Sheffner, and E. Sunquist, "Investigators share improved understanding of the North American carbon cycle", Eos Trans. AGU, 88(24), 255 (2005)
W. W. Hargrove and F. M. Hoffman, "Using multivariate clustering to characterize ecoregion borders," IEEE Computing in Science and Engineering 1, 18-25 (1999).
W. W. Hargrove and F. M. Hoffman, "Potential of multivariate quantitative methods for delineation and visualization of ecoregions," Environmental Management 34(1), S39-S60 (2004)
D. S. Schimel, VEMAP Participants, and B.H. Braswell, "Continental scale variability in ecosystem processes: Models, data, and the role of disturbance" Ecological Monographs 67, 251-271 (1997).
J. M. Omernik, "Ecoregions of the conterminous United States. Map (scale 1:7,500,000)," Annals of the Association of American Geographers 77(1), 118-125 (1987).
R. G. Bailey, "Delineation of ecosystem regions," Environmental Management 7, 365-373 (1983)
H. Powell, P. J. Mulholland, H. Loescher, and T. Cilke, "The STREON Experiment - Experiments as accelerators of change in NEON," P23, 2009 LTER All Scientists Meeting, Estes Park, CO, USA (2009), (http://asm.lternet.edu/2009/posters/streon-experiment-%E2%80%93-experiments-accelerators-change-neon).
G. P. Asner and P. M. Vitousek, "Remote sensing of biological invasion and biogeochemical change," Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 102(12), 4383-4386 (2005)
G. P. Asner, R. F. Hughes, P. M. Vitousek, D. E. Knapp, T. Kennedy-Bowdoin, J. Boardman, R. E. Martin, M. Eastwood, and R. O. Green, " Invasive plants transform the three-dimensional structure of rain forests," Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 105(11), 4519-4523 (2008)
V. V. Solmonsoon, W. L. Barnes, P. W. Maymon, H. E. Montgomery, and H. Ostrow, "MODIS: advanced facility instrument for studies of the earth as a system," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 27(2), 145-153 (1989)
C. O. Justice, J. R. G. Townshend, E. F. Vermote, E. Masuoka, R. E. Wolfe, N. Saleous, D. P. Roy, and J. T. Morisette, "An overview of MODIS land data processing and processing status," Rem. Sens. Environ. 83, 3-15 (2002)
S. L. Ustin, D. A. Roberts, J. A. Gamon, G. A. Asner, and R. O. Green, "Using imaging spectroscopy to study ecosystem processes and properties," Bioscience 54(6), 523-534 (2004)
D. A. Roberts, D. A., S. L. Ustin, S. Ogunjemiyo, J. Greenberg, S. Z. Dobrowski, J. Q. Chen, and T. M. Hinckley, "Spectral and structural measurements of northwest forest vegetation at leaf to landscape scales," Ecosystems 7, 545-562 (2004)
M. Clark, D. A. Roberts, and D. B. Clark, "Hyperspectral discrimination of tropical rain forest tree species at leaf to crown scales," Rem. Sens. Environ. 96(3-4), 375-398 (2005)
G. Vane, A. F. H. Goetz, and J. B. Wellman, "Airborne Imaging Spectrometer - A new tool for remote-sensing," IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 22(6), 546-549 (1984).
R. O. Green, R. O., M. L. Eastwood, C. M. Sarture, T. G. Chrien, M. Aronsson, B. J. Chippendale, J. A. Faust, B. E. Pavri, C. J. Chovit, M. Solis, M. R. Olah, and O. Williams, "Imaging spectroscopy and the Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS)," Rem. Sens. Environ. 65, 227-248 (1998).
P. Mouroulis, R. O. Green, and T. G. Chrien, "Design of Pushbroom imaging spectrometers for optimal recovery of spectroscopic and spatial information," Appl. Opt. 39(13), 2210-2220 (2000)
L. F. Johnson, C. A. Hlavka, and D. L. Peterson, "Multivariate analysis of AVIRIS data for canopy biochemical estimation along the Oregon transect," Rem. Sens. Environ. 47, 216-230 (1994)
L. Surrano, S. L. Ustin, D. A. Roberts, J. A. Gamon, and J. Penuelas, "Deriving water content of chaparral vegetation from AVIRIS data," Rem. Sens. Environ. 74, 570-581 (2000)
A. F. Rahman, J. A. Gamon, D. A. Fuentes, D. A. Roberts, and D. Prentiss, "Modeling spatial distributed ecosystem flux of boreal forests using hyperspectral indices from AVIRIS imagery," J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 106(d24), 33579-33591 (2001)
G. P. Asner, G. P, D. E. Knapp, T. Kennedy-Bowdin, M. O. Jones, R. E. Martin, J. Boardman, and C. B. Fields, "Carnegie Airborne Observatory: in-flight fusion of hyperspectral and waveform light detection and ranging (wLiDAR) for three-dimensional studies of ecosystems," J. Appl. Rem. Sens. 1, 013536 (2007)
L. Guanter, V. Estelles, and J. Moreno, "Spectral calibration and atmospheric correction of ultra-fine spectral and spatial resolution remote sensing data: Application to CASI-1500 data," Rem. Sens. Environ. 109, 54-65 (2007)
H. Kaufmann, K. Segl, S. Chabrillat, S. Hofer, T. Stuffler, A. Muller, R. Richter, G. Schreier, R. Haydn, and H. Bach, "ENMAP: A Hyperspectral Sensor for Environmental Mapping and Analysis," IEEE International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium (IGARSS 2006), Denver, CO, 1617-1619 (2006)
M. E. Schaepman, K. I. Itten, D. R. Schlaepfer, J. W. Kiaser, J. Brazile, W. Debruyn, A. Neukom, H. Feusi, P. Adolph, R. Moser, T. Shilliger, L. De Vos, G. M. Brandt, P. Kohler, M. Meng, J. Piesbergen, P. Strobl, J. Gavira, G. J. Ulbrich, and R. Meynart, "APEX: Current status of the Airborne Dispersive Pushbroom Imaging Spectrometer," Proc. SPIE 5234, 202-210 (2003)
T. Valle, T. U. Kampe, P. A. Wamsley, H. Chase, G. E. Taudien, P. T. Sphuler, P. B. Johnson, and G. L. Mills, "Efficient characterization of imaging spectrometers; Application in the LWIR and MWIR," Proc. SPIE 7453, 7453-19 (2009)
W. M. Kaula, G. Schubert, R. E. Lingenfelter, W. L. Sjorgen, and W. R. Wollenhaupt, "Apollo laser altimetry and inferences as to lunar structure," Proc. 5th Lunar Sci. Conf., Houston, TX, March 18-22, 1974, Proceedings Vol 3, Pergamon Press, Inc., 3049-3058 (1974).
M. Lefsky W. B. Cohen, G. G. Parker, and D. J. Harding, "Lidar remote sensing for ecosystem studies," BioScience 52, 19-30 (2002)
J. Reitberger, P. Krzystek, and U. Stilla, "Analysis of full waveform lidar data for tree species classification," ISPRS Symposium Commission III, Photogrammetric Computer Vision and Image Analysis, PCV06, 20-22 September 2006, Bonn, Germany, International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing
J. L. Bufton, J.B. J. B. Garvin, J. F. Cavanaugh, L. Ramos-Izquierdo, T. D. Klem, W. B. Krabill, "Airborne lidar for profiling of surface topography," Opt. Eng. 30, 72-78 (1991)
D. J. Harding, M. A. Lefsky, G. G. Parker, J. B. Blair, "Laser altimetry height profiles methods and validation for closed-canopy, broadleaf forests," Rem. Sens. Environ. 76, 283-297 (2001)
R. O. Dubayah and J. B. Drake, "Lidar remote sensing of forestry," Journal of Forestry 98, 44-46 (2000).
A. L. Neuenschwander, L. A. Magruder, and M. Tyler, "Landcover classification of small-footprint, full-waveform lidar data," J. Appl. Rem. Sens. 3, 033544 (2009)
J. Reitberger, C. Schnorr, M. Heurich, P. Krzystek, and U. Stilla, "Towards 3d mapping of forests: a comparative study with first/last pulse and fill waveform lidar data," Int. Atch. Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing, and Spatial Information Sciences 37, 1397-1403 (2008).
J. B. Blair, D. L. Rabine, and M. A. Hofton, "The laser vegetation imaging sensor: a medium-altitude, digitization-only, airborne laser altimeter for mapping vegetation and topography," ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry & Remote Sensing 54, 115-122, (1999).
D. R. Streutker, N. F. Glenn, "LiDAR measurement of sagebrush steppe vegetation heights," Rem. Sens. Environ. 102, 135-145 (2006)
K. R. Sherrill, M. A. Lefsky, J. B. Bradford, and M. G. Ryan, "Forest structure estimation and pattern exploration from discrete-return lidar in subalpine forests of the central Rockies," Can. J. For. Res. 38, 2081-2096 (2008).
M. A. Lefsky, M. Keller, Y. Pang, P. B. de Camargo, and M. O. Hunter, "Revised method for forest canopy height estimation from Geoscience Laser Altimeter System waveforms," J. Appl. Rem. Sens. 1, 013537 (2007)
K. J. Thome, "Ground-look radiometric calibration approaches for remote sensing imagers in the solar reflective," ISPRS I Symposium 2002 Commission, Integrated Remote Sensing at the Global, Regional and Local Scale, 10-15 November 2002, Denver, CO, USA, International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing.
A. Huetea , K. Didana, T. Miuraa, E. P. Rodrigueza, X. Gaoa and L. G. Ferreirab, "Overview of the radiometric and biophysical performance of the MODIS vegetation indices," Rem. Sens. Environ. 83(1-2), 195-213 (2002)
Oak Ridge National Laboratory Distributed Active Archive Center (ORNL DAAC). 2009. MODIS subsetted land products, Collection 5. Available on-line (www.daac.ornl.gov/MODIS/modis.html) from ORNL DAAC, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, U.S.A., Accessed April 4, 2009.
N. Buskness, Private Communication (2008).
P. M. Vitousek, C. M. D'Antonio,L. L. Loope, M. Rejmanek, and R. Westbrooks, "Introduced species: A significant component of human-caused global change," New Zealand Journal of Ecology 21(1), 1-16 (1997).
S. V. Ollinger, A. D. Richardson, M. E. Martin, D. Y. Hollinger, S. E. Frolking, P. B. Reich, L. C. Plourde, G. G. Katul, J. W. Munger, R. Oren, M.-L. Smith, K. T. Paw U, P. V. Bolstad, B. D. Cook, M. C. Day, T. A. Martin, R. K. Monson, and H. P. Schmid, "Canopy nitrogen, carbon assimilation, and albedo in temperate and boreal forests: Functional relations and potential climate feedbacks," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 105(49), 19336-19341 (2008)
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