Research Papers

Three-dimensional FLASH laser radar range estimation via blind deconvolution

[+] Author Affiliations
Jason R. McMahon, Richard K. Martin, Stephen C. Cain

Air Force Institute of Technology, Graduate School of Engineering and Management, 2950 Hobson Way, Wright Patterson AFB, OH 45433

J. Appl. Remote Sens. 4(1), 043517 (March 19, 2010). doi:10.1117/1.3386044
History: Received October 15, 2009; Revised March 9, 2010; Accepted March 15, 2010; March 19, 2010; Online March 19, 2010
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Abstract

Three-dimensional (3D) FLASH Laser Radar (LADAR) sensors are unique due to the ability to rapidly acquire a series of two dimensional remote scene data (i.e. range images). Principal causes of 3D FLASH LADAR range estimation error include spatial blur, detector blurring, noise, timing jitter, and inter-sample targets. Unlike previous research, this paper accounts for pixel coupling by defining the range image mathematical model as a 2D convolution between the system spatial impulse response and the object (target or remote scene) at a particular point in time. Using this model, improved range estimation is possible by object restoration from the data observations. Object estimation is performed by deriving a blind deconvolution Generalized Expectation Maximization (GEM) algorithm with the range determined from the estimated object by a normalized correlation method. Theoretical derivations and simulation results are verified with experimental data of a bar target taken from a 3D FLASH LADAR system in a laboratory environment. Simulation examples show that the GEM improves range estimation over the unprocessed data and a Wiener filter method by 75% and 26% respectively. In the laboratory experiment, the GEM improves range estimation by 34% and 18%over the unprocessed data and Wiener filter method respectively.

References

J. C. Dries, B. Miles, and R. Stettner, "A 32 x 32 pixel FLASH laser radar system incorporating InGaAs PIN and APD detectors," Proc. SPIE 5412, 250 (2004)
R. Stettner, H. Bailey, and R. D. Richmond, "Eye-safe laser radar 3-D imaging," Proc. SPIE 5412, 111 (2004)
G. J. McLachlan and T. Krishnan, The EM Algorithm and Extensions, 2nd ed., Wiley, Hoboken, NJ (2008)
K. Jain, Fundamentals of Digital Image Processing, Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ (1989).
J. McMahon, S. Cain, and R. Martin, "Improving 3-D LADAR range estimation via spatial filtering," IEEE Aerospace Conf., 1-9 (2009)
J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics, Roberts & Company, Englewood, CO (2005).
J. W. Goodman, Statistical Optics, McGraw-Hill, New York (1985).
S. C. Cain, R. Richmond, and E. Armstrong, "Flash light detection and ranging accuracy limits for returns from single opaque surfaces via Cramer-Rao bounds," Appl. Opt. 45(24), 6154-6162 (2006)
S. Johnson and S. C. Cain, "Bound on range precision for shot-noise limited ladar systems," Appl. Opt. 47(28), 5147-5154 (2008)
T. J. Schulz, "Multiframe blind deconvolution of astronomical images," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 1064-1073(1993)
L. Shepp and Y. Vardi, "Maximum-likelihood reconstruction for emission tomography," IEEE Trans. Medical Imag. MI-1(2), 113-122 (1982)
R. Gerchberg and W. Saxton, "A practical algorithm for the determination of phase from image and diffraction plane pictures," Optik 35(2), 237-246 (1971).
M. D. Seal, "Nonlinear time-variant response in an avalanche photodiode array based laser detection and ranging system," Master's thesis, Air Force Institute of Technology (2007) (handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA469310).
S. Johnson, Range Precision of LADAR Systems, PhD thesis, Air Force Institute of Technology (2008) (handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA488211).
© 2010 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers

Citation

Jason R. McMahon ; Richard K. Martin and Stephen C. Cain
"Three-dimensional FLASH laser radar range estimation via blind deconvolution", J. Appl. Remote Sens. 4(1), 043517 (March 19, 2010). ; http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/1.3386044


Figures

Tables

References

J. C. Dries, B. Miles, and R. Stettner, "A 32 x 32 pixel FLASH laser radar system incorporating InGaAs PIN and APD detectors," Proc. SPIE 5412, 250 (2004)
R. Stettner, H. Bailey, and R. D. Richmond, "Eye-safe laser radar 3-D imaging," Proc. SPIE 5412, 111 (2004)
G. J. McLachlan and T. Krishnan, The EM Algorithm and Extensions, 2nd ed., Wiley, Hoboken, NJ (2008)
K. Jain, Fundamentals of Digital Image Processing, Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ (1989).
J. McMahon, S. Cain, and R. Martin, "Improving 3-D LADAR range estimation via spatial filtering," IEEE Aerospace Conf., 1-9 (2009)
J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics, Roberts & Company, Englewood, CO (2005).
J. W. Goodman, Statistical Optics, McGraw-Hill, New York (1985).
S. C. Cain, R. Richmond, and E. Armstrong, "Flash light detection and ranging accuracy limits for returns from single opaque surfaces via Cramer-Rao bounds," Appl. Opt. 45(24), 6154-6162 (2006)
S. Johnson and S. C. Cain, "Bound on range precision for shot-noise limited ladar systems," Appl. Opt. 47(28), 5147-5154 (2008)
T. J. Schulz, "Multiframe blind deconvolution of astronomical images," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 1064-1073(1993)
L. Shepp and Y. Vardi, "Maximum-likelihood reconstruction for emission tomography," IEEE Trans. Medical Imag. MI-1(2), 113-122 (1982)
R. Gerchberg and W. Saxton, "A practical algorithm for the determination of phase from image and diffraction plane pictures," Optik 35(2), 237-246 (1971).
M. D. Seal, "Nonlinear time-variant response in an avalanche photodiode array based laser detection and ranging system," Master's thesis, Air Force Institute of Technology (2007) (handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA469310).
S. Johnson, Range Precision of LADAR Systems, PhD thesis, Air Force Institute of Technology (2008) (handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA488211).

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