Vegetation indices (VIs) are widely used in long-term measurement studies of vegetation changes, including seasonal vegetation activity and interannual vegetation-climate interactions. There is much interest in developing cross-sensor/multi-mission vegetation products that can be extended to future sensors while maintaining continuity with present and past sensors. In this study we investigated multi-sensor spectral bandpass dependencies of the enhanced vegetation index (EVI), a 2-band EVI (EVI2), and the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) using spectrally convolved Earth Observing-1 (EO-1) Hyperion satellite images acquired over a range of vegetation conditions. Two types of analysis were carried out, including (1) empirical relationships among sensor reflectances and VIs and (2) decomposition of bandpass contributions to observed cross-sensor VI differences. VI differences were a function of cross-sensor bandpass disparities and the integrative manner in which bandpass differences in red, near-infrared (NIR), and blue reflectances combined to influence a VI. Disparities in blue bandpasses were the primary cause of EVI differences between the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and other course resolution sensors, including the upcoming Visible Infrared Imager / Radiometer Suite (VIIRS). The highest compatibility was between VIIRS and MODIS EVI2 while AVHRR NDVI and EVI2 were the least compatible to MODIS.