Research Papers

Lidar detected spike returns

[+] Author Affiliations
William P. Hooper, Glendon M. Frick

Naval Research Laboratory, Remote Sensing Division, Code 7228, Washington, DC 20375

J. Appl. Remote Sens. 4(1), 043549 (October 26, 2010). doi:10.1117/1.3507091
History: Received February 1, 2010; Revised July 30, 2010; Accepted September 27, 2010; October 26, 2010; Online October 26, 2010
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Abstract

Lidar measurements of spike returns from clear air are presented. These spikes occur infrequently (approximately one in hundred returns) but provide returns that are significantly stronger (occasionally an order of magnitude larger) than the average aerosol backscatter signal. The spike density is 5.7e-3 spikes m-3> for backscattering cross sections estimates to be between 0.003 and 0.080 mm2> sr-1>. A modified form of the lidar equation which includes returns from large particulates is presented and the probability distribution for the spike magnitudes is derived from five million measurements.

References

H. Ottersten, "Atmospheric structure and radar backscatter in clear air," Radio Sci. 4, 1179-1193 (1969).
D. Lack and G. C. Varley, "Detection of birds by radar", Nature 156, 443-446 (1945).
K. M. Glover, K. R. Hardy, T. G. Konrad, W.N. Sullivan, and A. S. Michaels, "Radar observations of insects in free flight," Science 154, 967-972 (1966).
R. J. Munick, "Turbulent backscatter of light," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55, 893-893 (1965).
W. P. Hooper and L. U. Martin, "Scanning lidar measurements of surf-zone aerosol generation," Opt. Eng. 38, 250-255 (1999).
W. P. Hooper, G.M. Frick, and B.P. Michael, "Using backward Raman scattering from coupled deuterium cells for wavelength scattering," Opt. Eng. 48, 084302 (2009).
R. T. H. Collis "Lidar," Appl. Opt. 9, 1782-1788 (1970).
R. M. Measures, Laser Remote Sensing: Fundamentals and Applications, Krieger, Malabar (1992).
M. L. Wright, E.K. Proctor, L.S. Gasiorek, and E. M. Liston, A preliminary study of air-pollution measurements by active remote sensing techniques, NASA Langley Research Center, NASA CR-132724 (1975) (available from http://ntrs.nasa.gov).
J.W. Fitzgerald, "Effect of relative humdity on the aerosol backscatter coeffcient at 0.694- and 10.6-μm wavelength," Appl. Opt. 23, 411-418 (1983)
W. J. Martin and A. Shapiro, "Discrimination of birds and insects radar echos in clear air using high-resolution radars," J. Atmos. Oceano. Techn. 24, 1215-1230 (2007).
S. Lasher-Trapp and J. P. Stachnik, "Giant and ultragiant aerosol particle variability over the eastern great lakes region," J. Appl. Meteorol. Cli. 46, 651-659 (2007).
M. T. Ngo and G. Linde, "Clear-air backscatter from the lower atmosphere using a high-power, millimeter wave radar," 33rd Int. Conf. on Infrared, Millimeter, and Teraherz Waves, 454-455 (2008)
D. B. Johnson "The role of giant and ultra-giant aerosols in warm rain initiation," J Atmos. Sci. 39, 448-460 (1982).
© 2010 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers

Citation

William P. Hooper and Glendon M. Frick
"Lidar detected spike returns", J. Appl. Remote Sens. 4(1), 043549 (October 26, 2010). ; http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/1.3507091


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References

H. Ottersten, "Atmospheric structure and radar backscatter in clear air," Radio Sci. 4, 1179-1193 (1969).
D. Lack and G. C. Varley, "Detection of birds by radar", Nature 156, 443-446 (1945).
K. M. Glover, K. R. Hardy, T. G. Konrad, W.N. Sullivan, and A. S. Michaels, "Radar observations of insects in free flight," Science 154, 967-972 (1966).
R. J. Munick, "Turbulent backscatter of light," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55, 893-893 (1965).
W. P. Hooper and L. U. Martin, "Scanning lidar measurements of surf-zone aerosol generation," Opt. Eng. 38, 250-255 (1999).
W. P. Hooper, G.M. Frick, and B.P. Michael, "Using backward Raman scattering from coupled deuterium cells for wavelength scattering," Opt. Eng. 48, 084302 (2009).
R. T. H. Collis "Lidar," Appl. Opt. 9, 1782-1788 (1970).
R. M. Measures, Laser Remote Sensing: Fundamentals and Applications, Krieger, Malabar (1992).
M. L. Wright, E.K. Proctor, L.S. Gasiorek, and E. M. Liston, A preliminary study of air-pollution measurements by active remote sensing techniques, NASA Langley Research Center, NASA CR-132724 (1975) (available from http://ntrs.nasa.gov).
J.W. Fitzgerald, "Effect of relative humdity on the aerosol backscatter coeffcient at 0.694- and 10.6-μm wavelength," Appl. Opt. 23, 411-418 (1983)
W. J. Martin and A. Shapiro, "Discrimination of birds and insects radar echos in clear air using high-resolution radars," J. Atmos. Oceano. Techn. 24, 1215-1230 (2007).
S. Lasher-Trapp and J. P. Stachnik, "Giant and ultragiant aerosol particle variability over the eastern great lakes region," J. Appl. Meteorol. Cli. 46, 651-659 (2007).
M. T. Ngo and G. Linde, "Clear-air backscatter from the lower atmosphere using a high-power, millimeter wave radar," 33rd Int. Conf. on Infrared, Millimeter, and Teraherz Waves, 454-455 (2008)
D. B. Johnson "The role of giant and ultra-giant aerosols in warm rain initiation," J Atmos. Sci. 39, 448-460 (1982).

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