Research Papers

Water productivity mapping methods using remote sensing

[+] Author Affiliations
Chandrashekhar M. Biradar

Center for Spatial Analysis, University of Oklahoma, College of Atmospheric and Geographic Science, Norman, Oklahomoa 73109

Prasad S. Thenkabail

United States Geological Survey, PO Box 2075, Flagstaff, Arizona 86001

Alexander Platonov

International Water Management Institute, PO Box 2075, Colombo, Sri Lanka

Xiangming Xiao

Center for Spatial Analysis, University of Oklahoma, Stephenson Research and Technology Center, Norman, Oklahoma

Roland Geerken

Department of Geology and Geophysics, Yale University, 106 Kline Geology Laboratory, 210 Whitney Ave., New Haven, Connecticut 06520

Praveen Noojipady

Department of Geography, University of Maryland, 2181 LeFrak Hall, College Park, Maryland 20742

Hugh Turral

On the Street Productions, 28 Newry Street, Melbourne, Melbourne 3054 Australia

Jagath Vithanage

International Water Management Institute, PO Box 2075, Colombo, Colombo Sri Lanka

J. Appl. Remote Sens. 2(1), 023544 (November 6, 2008). doi:10.1117/1.3033753
History: Received September 5, 2008; Revised October 15, 2008; Accepted October 17, 2008; November 6, 2008; Online November 06, 2008
Text Size: A A A

Open Access Open Access

Abstract

The goal of this paper was to develop methods and protocols for water productivity mapping (WPM) using remote sensing data at multiple resolutions and scales in conjunction with field-plot data. The methods and protocols involved three broad categories: (a) Crop Productivity Mapping (CPM) (kg/m2); (b) Water Use (evapotranspiration) Mapping (WUM) (m3/m2); and (c) Water Productivity Mapping (WPM) (kg/m3). First, the CPMs were determined using remote sensing by: (i) Mapping crop types; (ii) modeling crop yield; and (iii) extrapolating models to larger areas. Second, WUM were derived using the Simplified Surface Energy Balance (SSEB) model. Finally, WPMs were produced by dividing CPMs and WUMs. The paper used data from Quickbird 2.44m, Indian Remote Sensing (IRS) Resoursesat-1 23.5m, Landsat-7 30m, and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) 250m and 500m, to demonstrate the methods for mapping water productivity (WP). In terms of physical water productivity (kilogram of yield produced per unit of water delivered), wheat crop had highest water productivity of 0.60 kg/m3 (WP), followed by rice with 0.5 kg/m3, and cotton with 0.42 kg/m3. In terms of economic value (dollar per unit of water delivered), cotton ranked highest at $ 0.5/m3 followed by wheat with $ 0.33/m3 and rice at $ 0.10/m3. The study successfully delineated the areas of low and high WP. An overwhelming proportion (50+%) of the irrigated areas were under low WP for all crops with only about 10% area in high WP.

References

S. Postel, "Water and Agriculture" in Water in Crisis: A Guide to the World's Fresh Water Resources, P. H. Gleick, Ed., pp. 56-66, Oxford University Press, Oxford (1993).
W.G.M. Bastiaanssen, T. Thiruvengadachari, R. Sakthivadivel, and D.J. Molden, "Satellite remote sensing for estimating productivities of land and water," Int. Water Res. Dev. 15, 181-196 (1999)
D. J. Molden, "Accounting for water use and productivity," SWIM Paper 1, IWMI, Colombo, 1-16 (1997).
P. Raskin, E. Hansen, Z. Zhu, and D. Stavisky. "Simulation of water supply and demand in the Aral Sea Region," Water Int. 17, 55-67 (1992).
P. S. Thenkabail, R. B. Smith, and E. De-Pauw, "Evaluation of narrowband and broadband vegetation indices for determining optimal hyperspectral wavebands for agricultural crop characterization," Photogram. Engin Rem. Sens. 68(6), 607-621 (2002).
P. S. Thenkabail, E. A. Enclona, M. S. Ashton, C. Legg, and M. Jean De Dieu, "Hyperion, IKONOS, ALI, and ETM+ sensors in the study of African rainforests," Rem. Sens. Environ. 90, 23-43 (2004)
B. L. Markham and J. L. Barker, "Radiometric properties of U.S. processed Landsat MSS data," Rem. Sens. Environ. 22, 39-71 (1987)
E. F. Vermote, N. El Saleous, and C. Justice, "Atmospheric correction of the MODIS data in the visible to middle infrared: first results," Rem. Sen. Environ. 83, 97-111 (2002)
C. L. Wiegand, A. J. Richardson, and E. T. Kanemasu, "Leaf area index estimates for wheat from Landsat and their implications for evapotranspiration and crop modeling," Agron. J. 71, 336-342 (1979).
C. J. Tucker, "Red and photographic infrared linear combinations for monitoring vegetation," Rem. Sens. Environ. 8, 127-150 (1979)
P. S. Thenkabail, A. D. Ward, J. G. Lyon, and C. J. Merry, "Thematic mapper vegetation indices for determining soybean and corn crop growth parameters," Photogram. Engin. Rem. Sens. 60(4), 437-442 (1994).
P. S. Thenkabail, "Biophysical and yield information for precision farming from near-real-time and historical Landsat TM images," Int. J. Rem. Sens. 24(14), 2879-2904 (2003)
P. S. Thenkabail, C. M. Biradar, H. Turral, P. Noojipady, Y. J. Li, J. Vithanage, V. Dheeravath, M. Velpuri, M. Schull, X. L. Cai, and R. Dutta, "An irrigated area map of the world (1999) derived from remote sensing," Research Report 105, Int. Water Management Inst., pp. 1-74 (2006).
P. S. Thenkabail, C. M. Biradar, P. Noojipady, V. Dheeravath, Y. J. Li, M. Velpuri, M. Gumma, G. P. O. Reddy, H. Turral, X. L. Cai, J. Vithanage, M. Schull, and R. Dutta, "Global irrigated area map (GIAM) for the end of the last millennium derived from remote Sensing," Int. J. Rem. Sens. (2008) (in press).
P. J. Sellers, "Canopy reflectance, photosynthesis, and transpiration. The role of biophysics in the linearity of their interdependence," Rem. Sens. Environ. 21,143-183 (1987)
A. A. Gitelson and M. N. Merzlyak, "Quantitative estimation of chlorophyll-a using reflectance spectra: experiments with autumn chestnut and maple leaves," J. Photochem. Photobiol. 22, 247-252 (1994)
C. J. Tucker and P. J. Sellers, "Satellite remote sensing of primary production," Int. J. Rem. Sens. 7, 1395-1416 (1986)
D. S. Bartlett, M. A. Hardisky, R. W. Johnson, M. F. Gross, V. Klemas, and J. M. Hartman, "Continental scale variability in vegetation reflectance and its relationship to canopy morphology," Int. J. Rem. Sens. 9, 1223-1241 (1988)
F. Baret, G. Guyot, and D. J. Major, "TSAVI: a vegetation index which minimizes soil brightness effects on LAI and APAR estimation," in Int. Geosci. Rem. Sens. Symp. 1355-1358 (1989).
C. J. Wiegand, A. J. Richardson, D. E. Escobar, and A. H. Gerbermann, "Vegetation indices in crop assessments," Rem. Sens. Environ. 35,105-119 (1991)
P. S. Thenkabail, A.D. Ward, and J.G. Lyon, "Impacts of agricultural management practices on soybean and corn crops evident in ground-truth data and thematic mapper vegetation indices," Trans. Am. Soc. Agri. Engin. 37, 989-995 (1994).
P. S. Thenkabail, A. D. Ward, and J. G. Lyon, "Landsat-5 thematic mapper models of soybean and corn crop characteristics," Int. J. Rem. Sens. 15, 9-61 (1995).
J. L. Monteith, "Solar radiation and productivity in tropical ecosystems," J. Appl. Eco. 9, 747-766 (1972)
J. L. Monteith, "Climate and the efficiency of crop production in Britain," Philosop. Trans. Royal Soc. Lond. 281, 277-294 (1977)
C. S. Potter, J. T. Randerson, C. B. Field, P. A. Matson, P. M. V. Vitousek, H. A. Mooney, and A. K. Steven, "Terrestrial ecosystem production: a process model based on global satellite and surface data," Glob. Biogeochem. Cyc. 7, 811-841 (1993)
C. B. Field, J. T. Randerson, and C. M. Malmstrom, "Global net primary production: combining ecology and remote sensing," Rem. Sens. Environ. 51, 74-88 (1995)
D. B. Lobell, J. A. Hicke, G. P. Asner, C. B. Field, C. J. Tucker, and S. O. Los, "Satellite estimates of productivity and light use efficiency in United States agriculture," Glob. Chan. Bio. 8, 722-735 (2002)
B. D. Lobell, G. P. Asner, A.L. Ortiz-Monasterio, and I. J. Benning, "Remote sensing of regional crop production in the Yaqui Valley, Mexico: estimates and uncertainties," Agri. Eco. Environ. 94, 205-220. (2003)
W.G.M. Bastiaanssen, and S. Ali, "A new crop yield forecasting model based on satellite measurements applied across the Indus Basin. Pakistan," Agri. Eco. Environ. 94, 321-340 (2003)
G. B. Samarasinghe, "Growth and yields of Sri Lanka's major crops interpreted from public domain satellites," Agri. Water Manag. 58, 145-157 (2003)
V. K. Dadhwal, "Remote sensing applications for agriculture: retrospective and perspective," Proc. Indian Soc. Rem. Sens. 99, 11-22 (1999).
S. N. Goward and K.F. Huemmrich, "Vegetation canopy PAR absorptance and the normalized difference vegetation index: an assessment using the SAIL model," Rem. Sens. Environ. 39, 119-140 (1992)
F. Maselli, C. Conese, L. Petkov, and M. A. Gilabert, "Use of NOAA AVHRR NDVI data for environmental monitoring and crop forecasting in the Sahel. Preliminary results," Int. J. Rem. Sens. 13, 2743-2749 (1992)
M. S. Rasmussen, "Assessment of millet yields and production in northern Burkina Faso using integrated NDVI from the AVHRR," Int. J. Rem. Sens. 13, 3431-3442 (1992)
N. A. Quarmby, M. Milnes, T. L. Hindle, and N. Silleos, "The use of multi-temporal NDVI measurements from AVHRR data for crop yield estimation and prediction," Int. J. Rem. Sens. 14, 199-210 (1993)
M. J. Hayes and W. L. Decker, "Using NOAA AVHRR data to estimate maize production in the United States corn belt," Int. J. Rem. Sens. 17, 3189-3200 (1996)
F. N. Kogan, "Global drought watch from space," Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 78, 621-636 (1997)
J. B. Passioura, "Environmental biology and crop improvement," Funct. Plant Bio. 29, 537-546 (2002)
L. S. Unhanai and F. N. Kogan, "Drought monitoring and corn yield estimation in Southern Africa from AVHRR data," Rem. Sens. Environ. 63, 219-232 (1998)
T. E. Engman, "Recent advances in remote sensing in hydrology. U.S. National Report to IUGG, 1991-1994," Rev. Geophys. Suppl. AGU 33 (1995) (http://www.agu.org/revgeophys/engman00/engman00.html).
J. L. Wright, R. G. Allen, and T. A. Howell, "Conversion between evapotranspiration references and methods," Proc. 4th Nat. Irrigation Symp. ASAE, Phoenix, AZ, USA (2000).
P. S. Kashyap and R. K. Panda, "Evaluation of evapotranspiration methods and development of crop-coefficients for potato crop in a sub-humid region," Agri. Water Manage. 50, 9-25 (2001)
Kassam and M. Smith, "FAO methodologies on crop water use and crop water productivity," Proc.. Expert Meeting Crop Water Prod.,Rome, Italy (2001).
R. G. Allen, S. L. Pereira, D. Raes, and M. Smith, "Crop evapotranspiration: guidelines for computing crop water requirements," FAO Irrigation Drainage Paper, 56, FAO, Rome (1998).
I. A. Walter, R. G. Allen, R. Elliott, M. E. Jensen, D. Itenfisu, B. Mecham, T. A. Howell, R. Snyder, P. Brown, S. Echings, T. Spofford, M. Hattendorf, R. H. Cuenca, J. L. Wright, and D. Martin, "ASCE's standardized reference evapotranspiration equation," Proc. Nat. Irrigation Symp. ASAE, Phoenix, AZ, (2000).
W. P. Kustas and C. S. T. Daughtry, "Estimation of the soil heat flux/net radiation ratio from multispectral data," Agri. For. Meteorol. 49, 205-223 (1990)
K. S. Humes, W. P. Kustas, and M. S. Moran, "Use of remote sensing and reference site measurements to estimate instantaneous surface energy balance components over a semiarid rangeland watershed," Water Res. Res. 30, 1363-1373 (1994)
G. W. Kite and P. Droogers, "Comparing evapotranspiration estimates from satellites, hydrological models and field data," J. Hydrol. 209, 3-18. (2000)
T. J. Schmugge, W. P. Kustas, J. C. Ritchie, T. J. Jackson, and A. Rango, "Remote sensing in hydrology," Adv. Water Res. 25 (8-12), 1367-1385. (2002)
D. Courault, B. Seguin, and O. Olioso, "Review to estimate evapotranspiration from remote sensing data: some examples from the simplified relationship to the use of atmospheric models," Worksh. Rem. Sens.ET Large Regions, ICID., Montpellier, France (2003).
T. G. Van Niel and T. R. McVicar, "Current and potential uses of optical remote sensing in rice-based irrigation systems: a review," Aus. J. Agri. Res. 55, 155-185 (2004)
W. G. M. Bastiaanssen, M. Menenti, R. A. Feddes, and A. A. M. Holtslag, "The surface energy balance algorithm for land (SEBAL): part 1 formulation," J. Hydro. 212-213, 198-210 (1998)
W. G. M. Bastiaanssen, S. Thiruvengadachari, R. Sakthivadivel, and D. J. Molden, "Satellite remote Ssensing for estimating productivities of land and water," Water Res. Devel. 15 (1-2), 181-196 (1999)
R. G. Allen, M. Tasumi, and R. Trezza, "Satellite-based energy balance for mapping evapotranspiration with internalized calibration (METRIC) model," J. Irri. Drain. Engin. 133 (4), 380-394 (2007)
G. B. Senay and J. Verdin, "Using a GIS-Based water balance model to assess regional crop performance," Proc. 5th Int. Worksh. Application Rem. Sens. Hydrol., Montpellier, France (2001).
G. B. Senay and J. Verdin, "Characterization of yield reduction in Ethiopia using a GIS-based crop water balance model," Can. J. Rem. Sens. 29(6), 687-692 (2003).
G. B. Senay, M. Budde, J. P. Verdin, and A. M. Melesse, "A coupled remote sensing and simplified surface energy balance approach to estimate actual evapo-transpiration from irrigated fields," Sensors. 7, 979-1000 (2007).
P. S. Thenkabail, C. M. Biradar, P. Noojipady, X. L. Cai, V. Dheeravath, Y. J. Li, M. Velpuri, M. Gumma, and S. Pandey, "Sub-pixel irrigated area calculation methods," Sensors. 7, 2519-2538 (2007).
A. Platonov, P. S. Thenkabail, C. M. Biradar, X. Cai, M. Gumma, V. Dheeravath, Y. Cohen, V. Alchanatis, N. Goldshlager, E. Ben-Dor, J. Vithanage, H. Manthrithilake, Sh. Kendjabaev, and S. Isaev, "Water productivity mapping (WPM) using Landsat ETM+ data for the irrigated croplands of the Syrdarya River basin in Central Asia," Sensors. (in review).
© 2008 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers

Citation

Chandrashekhar M. Biradar ; Prasad S. Thenkabail ; Alexander Platonov ; Xiangming Xiao ; Roland Geerken, et al.
"Water productivity mapping methods using remote sensing", J. Appl. Remote Sens. 2(1), 023544 (November 6, 2008). ; http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/1.3033753


Figures

Tables

References

S. Postel, "Water and Agriculture" in Water in Crisis: A Guide to the World's Fresh Water Resources, P. H. Gleick, Ed., pp. 56-66, Oxford University Press, Oxford (1993).
W.G.M. Bastiaanssen, T. Thiruvengadachari, R. Sakthivadivel, and D.J. Molden, "Satellite remote sensing for estimating productivities of land and water," Int. Water Res. Dev. 15, 181-196 (1999)
D. J. Molden, "Accounting for water use and productivity," SWIM Paper 1, IWMI, Colombo, 1-16 (1997).
P. Raskin, E. Hansen, Z. Zhu, and D. Stavisky. "Simulation of water supply and demand in the Aral Sea Region," Water Int. 17, 55-67 (1992).
P. S. Thenkabail, R. B. Smith, and E. De-Pauw, "Evaluation of narrowband and broadband vegetation indices for determining optimal hyperspectral wavebands for agricultural crop characterization," Photogram. Engin Rem. Sens. 68(6), 607-621 (2002).
P. S. Thenkabail, E. A. Enclona, M. S. Ashton, C. Legg, and M. Jean De Dieu, "Hyperion, IKONOS, ALI, and ETM+ sensors in the study of African rainforests," Rem. Sens. Environ. 90, 23-43 (2004)
B. L. Markham and J. L. Barker, "Radiometric properties of U.S. processed Landsat MSS data," Rem. Sens. Environ. 22, 39-71 (1987)
E. F. Vermote, N. El Saleous, and C. Justice, "Atmospheric correction of the MODIS data in the visible to middle infrared: first results," Rem. Sen. Environ. 83, 97-111 (2002)
C. L. Wiegand, A. J. Richardson, and E. T. Kanemasu, "Leaf area index estimates for wheat from Landsat and their implications for evapotranspiration and crop modeling," Agron. J. 71, 336-342 (1979).
C. J. Tucker, "Red and photographic infrared linear combinations for monitoring vegetation," Rem. Sens. Environ. 8, 127-150 (1979)
P. S. Thenkabail, A. D. Ward, J. G. Lyon, and C. J. Merry, "Thematic mapper vegetation indices for determining soybean and corn crop growth parameters," Photogram. Engin. Rem. Sens. 60(4), 437-442 (1994).
P. S. Thenkabail, "Biophysical and yield information for precision farming from near-real-time and historical Landsat TM images," Int. J. Rem. Sens. 24(14), 2879-2904 (2003)
P. S. Thenkabail, C. M. Biradar, H. Turral, P. Noojipady, Y. J. Li, J. Vithanage, V. Dheeravath, M. Velpuri, M. Schull, X. L. Cai, and R. Dutta, "An irrigated area map of the world (1999) derived from remote sensing," Research Report 105, Int. Water Management Inst., pp. 1-74 (2006).
P. S. Thenkabail, C. M. Biradar, P. Noojipady, V. Dheeravath, Y. J. Li, M. Velpuri, M. Gumma, G. P. O. Reddy, H. Turral, X. L. Cai, J. Vithanage, M. Schull, and R. Dutta, "Global irrigated area map (GIAM) for the end of the last millennium derived from remote Sensing," Int. J. Rem. Sens. (2008) (in press).
P. J. Sellers, "Canopy reflectance, photosynthesis, and transpiration. The role of biophysics in the linearity of their interdependence," Rem. Sens. Environ. 21,143-183 (1987)
A. A. Gitelson and M. N. Merzlyak, "Quantitative estimation of chlorophyll-a using reflectance spectra: experiments with autumn chestnut and maple leaves," J. Photochem. Photobiol. 22, 247-252 (1994)
C. J. Tucker and P. J. Sellers, "Satellite remote sensing of primary production," Int. J. Rem. Sens. 7, 1395-1416 (1986)
D. S. Bartlett, M. A. Hardisky, R. W. Johnson, M. F. Gross, V. Klemas, and J. M. Hartman, "Continental scale variability in vegetation reflectance and its relationship to canopy morphology," Int. J. Rem. Sens. 9, 1223-1241 (1988)
F. Baret, G. Guyot, and D. J. Major, "TSAVI: a vegetation index which minimizes soil brightness effects on LAI and APAR estimation," in Int. Geosci. Rem. Sens. Symp. 1355-1358 (1989).
C. J. Wiegand, A. J. Richardson, D. E. Escobar, and A. H. Gerbermann, "Vegetation indices in crop assessments," Rem. Sens. Environ. 35,105-119 (1991)
P. S. Thenkabail, A.D. Ward, and J.G. Lyon, "Impacts of agricultural management practices on soybean and corn crops evident in ground-truth data and thematic mapper vegetation indices," Trans. Am. Soc. Agri. Engin. 37, 989-995 (1994).
P. S. Thenkabail, A. D. Ward, and J. G. Lyon, "Landsat-5 thematic mapper models of soybean and corn crop characteristics," Int. J. Rem. Sens. 15, 9-61 (1995).
J. L. Monteith, "Solar radiation and productivity in tropical ecosystems," J. Appl. Eco. 9, 747-766 (1972)
J. L. Monteith, "Climate and the efficiency of crop production in Britain," Philosop. Trans. Royal Soc. Lond. 281, 277-294 (1977)
C. S. Potter, J. T. Randerson, C. B. Field, P. A. Matson, P. M. V. Vitousek, H. A. Mooney, and A. K. Steven, "Terrestrial ecosystem production: a process model based on global satellite and surface data," Glob. Biogeochem. Cyc. 7, 811-841 (1993)
C. B. Field, J. T. Randerson, and C. M. Malmstrom, "Global net primary production: combining ecology and remote sensing," Rem. Sens. Environ. 51, 74-88 (1995)
D. B. Lobell, J. A. Hicke, G. P. Asner, C. B. Field, C. J. Tucker, and S. O. Los, "Satellite estimates of productivity and light use efficiency in United States agriculture," Glob. Chan. Bio. 8, 722-735 (2002)
B. D. Lobell, G. P. Asner, A.L. Ortiz-Monasterio, and I. J. Benning, "Remote sensing of regional crop production in the Yaqui Valley, Mexico: estimates and uncertainties," Agri. Eco. Environ. 94, 205-220. (2003)
W.G.M. Bastiaanssen, and S. Ali, "A new crop yield forecasting model based on satellite measurements applied across the Indus Basin. Pakistan," Agri. Eco. Environ. 94, 321-340 (2003)
G. B. Samarasinghe, "Growth and yields of Sri Lanka's major crops interpreted from public domain satellites," Agri. Water Manag. 58, 145-157 (2003)
V. K. Dadhwal, "Remote sensing applications for agriculture: retrospective and perspective," Proc. Indian Soc. Rem. Sens. 99, 11-22 (1999).
S. N. Goward and K.F. Huemmrich, "Vegetation canopy PAR absorptance and the normalized difference vegetation index: an assessment using the SAIL model," Rem. Sens. Environ. 39, 119-140 (1992)
F. Maselli, C. Conese, L. Petkov, and M. A. Gilabert, "Use of NOAA AVHRR NDVI data for environmental monitoring and crop forecasting in the Sahel. Preliminary results," Int. J. Rem. Sens. 13, 2743-2749 (1992)
M. S. Rasmussen, "Assessment of millet yields and production in northern Burkina Faso using integrated NDVI from the AVHRR," Int. J. Rem. Sens. 13, 3431-3442 (1992)
N. A. Quarmby, M. Milnes, T. L. Hindle, and N. Silleos, "The use of multi-temporal NDVI measurements from AVHRR data for crop yield estimation and prediction," Int. J. Rem. Sens. 14, 199-210 (1993)
M. J. Hayes and W. L. Decker, "Using NOAA AVHRR data to estimate maize production in the United States corn belt," Int. J. Rem. Sens. 17, 3189-3200 (1996)
F. N. Kogan, "Global drought watch from space," Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 78, 621-636 (1997)
J. B. Passioura, "Environmental biology and crop improvement," Funct. Plant Bio. 29, 537-546 (2002)
L. S. Unhanai and F. N. Kogan, "Drought monitoring and corn yield estimation in Southern Africa from AVHRR data," Rem. Sens. Environ. 63, 219-232 (1998)
T. E. Engman, "Recent advances in remote sensing in hydrology. U.S. National Report to IUGG, 1991-1994," Rev. Geophys. Suppl. AGU 33 (1995) (http://www.agu.org/revgeophys/engman00/engman00.html).
J. L. Wright, R. G. Allen, and T. A. Howell, "Conversion between evapotranspiration references and methods," Proc. 4th Nat. Irrigation Symp. ASAE, Phoenix, AZ, USA (2000).
P. S. Kashyap and R. K. Panda, "Evaluation of evapotranspiration methods and development of crop-coefficients for potato crop in a sub-humid region," Agri. Water Manage. 50, 9-25 (2001)
Kassam and M. Smith, "FAO methodologies on crop water use and crop water productivity," Proc.. Expert Meeting Crop Water Prod.,Rome, Italy (2001).
R. G. Allen, S. L. Pereira, D. Raes, and M. Smith, "Crop evapotranspiration: guidelines for computing crop water requirements," FAO Irrigation Drainage Paper, 56, FAO, Rome (1998).
I. A. Walter, R. G. Allen, R. Elliott, M. E. Jensen, D. Itenfisu, B. Mecham, T. A. Howell, R. Snyder, P. Brown, S. Echings, T. Spofford, M. Hattendorf, R. H. Cuenca, J. L. Wright, and D. Martin, "ASCE's standardized reference evapotranspiration equation," Proc. Nat. Irrigation Symp. ASAE, Phoenix, AZ, (2000).
W. P. Kustas and C. S. T. Daughtry, "Estimation of the soil heat flux/net radiation ratio from multispectral data," Agri. For. Meteorol. 49, 205-223 (1990)
K. S. Humes, W. P. Kustas, and M. S. Moran, "Use of remote sensing and reference site measurements to estimate instantaneous surface energy balance components over a semiarid rangeland watershed," Water Res. Res. 30, 1363-1373 (1994)
G. W. Kite and P. Droogers, "Comparing evapotranspiration estimates from satellites, hydrological models and field data," J. Hydrol. 209, 3-18. (2000)
T. J. Schmugge, W. P. Kustas, J. C. Ritchie, T. J. Jackson, and A. Rango, "Remote sensing in hydrology," Adv. Water Res. 25 (8-12), 1367-1385. (2002)
D. Courault, B. Seguin, and O. Olioso, "Review to estimate evapotranspiration from remote sensing data: some examples from the simplified relationship to the use of atmospheric models," Worksh. Rem. Sens.ET Large Regions, ICID., Montpellier, France (2003).
T. G. Van Niel and T. R. McVicar, "Current and potential uses of optical remote sensing in rice-based irrigation systems: a review," Aus. J. Agri. Res. 55, 155-185 (2004)
W. G. M. Bastiaanssen, M. Menenti, R. A. Feddes, and A. A. M. Holtslag, "The surface energy balance algorithm for land (SEBAL): part 1 formulation," J. Hydro. 212-213, 198-210 (1998)
W. G. M. Bastiaanssen, S. Thiruvengadachari, R. Sakthivadivel, and D. J. Molden, "Satellite remote Ssensing for estimating productivities of land and water," Water Res. Devel. 15 (1-2), 181-196 (1999)
R. G. Allen, M. Tasumi, and R. Trezza, "Satellite-based energy balance for mapping evapotranspiration with internalized calibration (METRIC) model," J. Irri. Drain. Engin. 133 (4), 380-394 (2007)
G. B. Senay and J. Verdin, "Using a GIS-Based water balance model to assess regional crop performance," Proc. 5th Int. Worksh. Application Rem. Sens. Hydrol., Montpellier, France (2001).
G. B. Senay and J. Verdin, "Characterization of yield reduction in Ethiopia using a GIS-based crop water balance model," Can. J. Rem. Sens. 29(6), 687-692 (2003).
G. B. Senay, M. Budde, J. P. Verdin, and A. M. Melesse, "A coupled remote sensing and simplified surface energy balance approach to estimate actual evapo-transpiration from irrigated fields," Sensors. 7, 979-1000 (2007).
P. S. Thenkabail, C. M. Biradar, P. Noojipady, X. L. Cai, V. Dheeravath, Y. J. Li, M. Velpuri, M. Gumma, and S. Pandey, "Sub-pixel irrigated area calculation methods," Sensors. 7, 2519-2538 (2007).
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