Research Papers

Surface soil moisture quantification and validation based on hyperspectral data and field measurements

[+] Author Affiliations
Soeren-Nils Haubrock, Sabine Chabrillat

Remote Sensing Section, GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences, Telegrafenberg, Potsdam, Brandenburg 14473 Germany

Matthias Kuhnert

Engineering Hydrology, GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences, Telegrafenberg, Potsdam, Brandenburg 14473 Germany

Patrick Hostert

Geomatics Department, Humboldt-Universita¨t zu Berlin, Unter den Linden 6, Berlin, 10099 Germany

Hermann Kaufmann

Remote Sensing Section, GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences, Telegrafenberg, Potsdam, Brandenburg 14473 Germany

J. Appl. Remote Sens. 2(1), 023552 (December 31, 2008). doi:10.1117/1.3059191
History: Received June 3, 2008; Revised November 26, 2008; Accepted December 2, 2008; December 31, 2008; Online December 31, 2008
Text Size: A A A

Open Access Open Access

Abstract

Surface soil moisture information is needed for monitoring and modeling surface processes at various spatial scales. While many reflectance based soil moisture quantification models have been developed and validated in laboratories, only few were applied from remote sensing platforms and thoroughly validated in the field. This paper addresses the issues of a) quantifying surface soil moisture with very high resolution spectral measurements from remote sensors in a landscape with sandy substrates and low vegetation cover as well as b) comprehensively validating these results in the field. For this purpose, the recently developed Normalized Soil Moisture Index (NSMI) has been analyzed for its applicability to airborne hyperspectral remote sensing data. Three HyMap scenes from 2004 and 2005 were collected from a lignite mining area in southern Brandenburg, Germany. An NSMI model was calibrated (R2>=0.92) and surface soil moisture maps were calculated based on this model. An in-situ surface soil moisture map based on a combination of Frequency Domain Reflectometry (FDR) and gravimetric data allowed for validating each image pixel (R2>=0.82). In addition, a qualitative multitemporal comparison between two consecutive NSMI datasets from 2004 was performed and validated, showing an increase in estimated surface soil moisture corresponding with field measurements and precipitation data. The study shows that the NSMI is appropriate for modeling surface soil moisture from high spectral-resolution remote sensing data. The index leads to valid estimations of soil moisture values below field capacity in an area with sandy substrates and low vegetation cover (NDVI < 0.3). Further studies will analyze the validity of the NSMI for surface soil moisture estimation from spaceborne hyperspectral sensors like the Environmental Mapping and Analysis Program (EnMap) in different landscapes.

References

W. Merritt, R. Letcher, and A. Jakeman, "A review of erosion and sediment transport models," Environ. Model. Software 18, 761-799 (2003).
R. Watson, R. Moss, and M. Zinyower, The Regional Impacts of Climate Change: An Assessment of Vulnerability, IPCC Special Report, Cambridge University (1998).
A. Porporato, E. Daly, and I. Rodriguez-Iturbe, "Soil water balance and ecosystem response to climate change," Am. Nat. 164(5), 625-632 (2004).
A. K. Knapp, P. Fay, J. Blair, S. Collins, M. Smith, J. Carlisle, C. Harper, B. Danner, M. Lett, and J. McCarron, "Rainfall variability, carbon cycling, and plant species diversity in a mesic grassland," Science 298, 2202-2205 (2002).
E. Ben-Dor and A. Banin, "Visible and near-infrared (0.4-1.1μm) analysis of arid and semiarid soils," Rem. Sens. Environ. 48, 261-274 (1994).
M. Baumgardner, "Reflectance properties of soils," Adv. Agron. 38, 1-44 (1985).
N. Goldshleger, E. Ben-Dor, Y. Benyamini, D. Blumberg, and M. Agassi, "Spectral properties and hydraulic conductance of soil crusts formed by raindrop impact," Int. J. Rem. Sens. 23(19), 3909-3920 (2002).
N. Goldshleger, E. Ben-Dor, Y. Benyamini, and M. Agassi, "Soil reflectance as a tool for assessing physical crust arrangement of four typical soils in Israel," Soil Sci. 169, 677-687 (2004).
W. Capehart and T. Carlson, "Decoupling of surface and near-surface soil water content: a remote sensing perspective," Water Resour. Res. 33(6), 1383-1395 (1997).
K. Huemmrich, "The GeoSail model: a simple addition to the SAIL model to describe discontinuous canopy reflectance," Rem. Sens. Environ. 75, 423-431 (2001).
W. Verhoef and H. Bach, "Coupled soil-leaf-canopy and atmosphere radiative transfer modeling to simulate hyperspectral multi-angular surface reflectance and TOA radiance data," Rem. Sens. Environ. 109, 166 - 182 (2007).
H. Bach and W. Verhoef, "Sensitivity studies on the effect of surface soil moisture on canopy reflectance using the radiative transfer model GeoSAIL," in IEEE 2003 International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium Proceedings, 3, 1679- 1681 (2003).
W. Planet, "Some comments on reflectance measurements of wet soils," Rem. Sens. Environ. 1, 127-129 (1970).
D. Lobell and G. Asner, "Moisture effects on soil reflectance," Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 66, 722-727 (2002).
L.Weidong, F. Baret, G. Xingfa, T. Qingxi, Z. Lanfen, and Z. Bing, "Relating soil surface moisture to reflectance," Rem. Sens. Environ. 81, 238-246 (2002).
L. Weidong, F. Baret, G. Xingfa, Z. Bing, T. Qingxi, and Z. Lanfen, "Evaluation of methods for surface soil moisture estimation from reflectance data," Int. J. Rem. Sens. 24(10), 2069-2083 (2003).
M. Whiting, L. Li, and S. Ustin, "Predicting water content using Gaussian model on soil spectra," Rem. Sens. Environ. 89, 535-552 (2004).
S. Haubrock, S. Chabrillat, C. Lemmnitz, and H. Kaufmann, "Surface soil moisture quantification models from reflectance data under field conditions," Int. J. Rem. Sens. 29(1), 3-29 (2008).
G. Profeti and H. Macintosh, "Flood management through landsat TM and ERS SAR data: a case study," Hydrolog. Process. 11, 1397-1408 (1997).
S. Vincente-Serrano, X. Pons-Fernandez, and J. Cuadrat-Prats, "Mapping soil moisture in the central Ebro river valley (northeast Spain) with Landsat and NOAA satellite imagery: a comparison with meteorological data," Int. J. Rem. Sens. 25(20), 4325-4350 (2004).
Y. Zhang and M. Wegehenkel, "Integration of MODIS data into a simple model for the spatial distributed simulation of soil water content and evapotranspiration," Rem. Sens. Environ. 104(4), 393-408 (2006).
S. Khanna, A. Palacios-Orueta, M. Whiting, S. Ustin, D. Riano, and J. Litago, "Development of angle indexes for soil moisture estimation, dry matter detection and land-cover discrimination," Rem. Sens. Environ. 109(2), 154-165 (2007).
E. Muller and H. Decamps, "Modeling soil moisture - reflectance," Rem. Sens. Environ. 76, 173-180 (2000).
R. Bryant, D. Thoma, S. Moran, C. Holifield, D. Goodrich, T. Keefer, G. Paige, W. D., and S. Skirvin, "Evaluation of hyperspectral, infrared temperature and radar measurements for monitoring surface soil moisture," in 1st Interagency Conference on Research in the Watersheds, 528-533, (Benson, Arizona) (2003).
I. Bogrekci and W. S. Lee, "The effects of soil moisture content on reflectance spectra of soils using UV-VIS-NIR spectroscopy," in 7th International Conference on Precision Agriculture, (Minneapolis) (2004).
U. Wendling, G. Fuchs, and G. Muller-Westermeier, Mittlere jahrliche Verdunstungshohe als Gras-Referenzverdunstung, Hydrologischer Atlas von Deutschland 2.12, Bundesministerium fur Umwelt (1999).
I. W. G. WRB, "World reference base for soil resources," tech. rep., FAO (2006).
C. Lemmnitz, M. Kuhnert, O. Bens, A. Guntner, B. Merz, and R. Huttl, "Spatial and temporal variations of actual soil water repellency and their influence on surface runoff," Hydrolog. Process. 22, 1976-1984 (2008).
F. Wisotzky and P. Obermann, "Acid mine groundwater in lignite overburden dumps and its prevention - the rhineland lignite mining area (germany)," Ecol. Eng. 17(2-3), 115-123 (2001).
T. Cocks, R. Jenssen, A. Stewart, I. Wilson, and T. Shields, "The hymap airborne hyperspectral sensor: The system, calibration and performance," in 1st EARSeL Workshop on Imaging Spectroscopy, (Zurich) (1998).
A. Nadler, S. Dasberg, and I. Lapid, "Time Domain Reflectometry measurements of water content and electrical conductivity of layered soil columns," Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 55, 938-943 (1991).
T. Heimovaara, "Frequency domain analysis of the time domain reflectometry waveforms - measurement of the complex dielectric permittivity of soils," Water Resour. Res. 30(20), 189-199 (1994).
A. Berk, G. P. Anderson, P. Acharya, M. L. Hoke, J. H. Chetwynd, L. S. Bernstein, E. P. Shettle, M. W. Matthew, and S. M. Adler-Golden, "Modtran 4 version 3 revision 1 users's manual," tech. rep., Air Force Research Laboratory (2003).
D. Shepard, "A two-dimensional interpolation function for irregularly-spaced data," in 23rd National Conference ACM, 517-524, ACM (1968).
C. Daughtry, E. Hunt Jr., and J. McMurtrey III, "Assessing crop residue cover using shortwave infrared reflectance," Rem. Sens. Environ. 90, 126-134 (2004).
K. Beven, "Runoff generation in semi-arid areas," in Dryland Rivers: Hydrology and Geomorphology of Semi-Arid Channels, L. Bull and M. Kirkby, Eds., 57-105, Wiley & Sons, Chichester (2002).
© 2008 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers

Citation

Soeren-Nils Haubrock ; Sabine Chabrillat ; Matthias Kuhnert ; Patrick Hostert and Hermann Kaufmann
"Surface soil moisture quantification and validation based on hyperspectral data and field measurements", J. Appl. Remote Sens. 2(1), 023552 (December 31, 2008). ; http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/1.3059191


Figures

Tables

References

W. Merritt, R. Letcher, and A. Jakeman, "A review of erosion and sediment transport models," Environ. Model. Software 18, 761-799 (2003).
R. Watson, R. Moss, and M. Zinyower, The Regional Impacts of Climate Change: An Assessment of Vulnerability, IPCC Special Report, Cambridge University (1998).
A. Porporato, E. Daly, and I. Rodriguez-Iturbe, "Soil water balance and ecosystem response to climate change," Am. Nat. 164(5), 625-632 (2004).
A. K. Knapp, P. Fay, J. Blair, S. Collins, M. Smith, J. Carlisle, C. Harper, B. Danner, M. Lett, and J. McCarron, "Rainfall variability, carbon cycling, and plant species diversity in a mesic grassland," Science 298, 2202-2205 (2002).
E. Ben-Dor and A. Banin, "Visible and near-infrared (0.4-1.1μm) analysis of arid and semiarid soils," Rem. Sens. Environ. 48, 261-274 (1994).
M. Baumgardner, "Reflectance properties of soils," Adv. Agron. 38, 1-44 (1985).
N. Goldshleger, E. Ben-Dor, Y. Benyamini, D. Blumberg, and M. Agassi, "Spectral properties and hydraulic conductance of soil crusts formed by raindrop impact," Int. J. Rem. Sens. 23(19), 3909-3920 (2002).
N. Goldshleger, E. Ben-Dor, Y. Benyamini, and M. Agassi, "Soil reflectance as a tool for assessing physical crust arrangement of four typical soils in Israel," Soil Sci. 169, 677-687 (2004).
W. Capehart and T. Carlson, "Decoupling of surface and near-surface soil water content: a remote sensing perspective," Water Resour. Res. 33(6), 1383-1395 (1997).
K. Huemmrich, "The GeoSail model: a simple addition to the SAIL model to describe discontinuous canopy reflectance," Rem. Sens. Environ. 75, 423-431 (2001).
W. Verhoef and H. Bach, "Coupled soil-leaf-canopy and atmosphere radiative transfer modeling to simulate hyperspectral multi-angular surface reflectance and TOA radiance data," Rem. Sens. Environ. 109, 166 - 182 (2007).
H. Bach and W. Verhoef, "Sensitivity studies on the effect of surface soil moisture on canopy reflectance using the radiative transfer model GeoSAIL," in IEEE 2003 International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium Proceedings, 3, 1679- 1681 (2003).
W. Planet, "Some comments on reflectance measurements of wet soils," Rem. Sens. Environ. 1, 127-129 (1970).
D. Lobell and G. Asner, "Moisture effects on soil reflectance," Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 66, 722-727 (2002).
L.Weidong, F. Baret, G. Xingfa, T. Qingxi, Z. Lanfen, and Z. Bing, "Relating soil surface moisture to reflectance," Rem. Sens. Environ. 81, 238-246 (2002).
L. Weidong, F. Baret, G. Xingfa, Z. Bing, T. Qingxi, and Z. Lanfen, "Evaluation of methods for surface soil moisture estimation from reflectance data," Int. J. Rem. Sens. 24(10), 2069-2083 (2003).
M. Whiting, L. Li, and S. Ustin, "Predicting water content using Gaussian model on soil spectra," Rem. Sens. Environ. 89, 535-552 (2004).
S. Haubrock, S. Chabrillat, C. Lemmnitz, and H. Kaufmann, "Surface soil moisture quantification models from reflectance data under field conditions," Int. J. Rem. Sens. 29(1), 3-29 (2008).
G. Profeti and H. Macintosh, "Flood management through landsat TM and ERS SAR data: a case study," Hydrolog. Process. 11, 1397-1408 (1997).
S. Vincente-Serrano, X. Pons-Fernandez, and J. Cuadrat-Prats, "Mapping soil moisture in the central Ebro river valley (northeast Spain) with Landsat and NOAA satellite imagery: a comparison with meteorological data," Int. J. Rem. Sens. 25(20), 4325-4350 (2004).
Y. Zhang and M. Wegehenkel, "Integration of MODIS data into a simple model for the spatial distributed simulation of soil water content and evapotranspiration," Rem. Sens. Environ. 104(4), 393-408 (2006).
S. Khanna, A. Palacios-Orueta, M. Whiting, S. Ustin, D. Riano, and J. Litago, "Development of angle indexes for soil moisture estimation, dry matter detection and land-cover discrimination," Rem. Sens. Environ. 109(2), 154-165 (2007).
E. Muller and H. Decamps, "Modeling soil moisture - reflectance," Rem. Sens. Environ. 76, 173-180 (2000).
R. Bryant, D. Thoma, S. Moran, C. Holifield, D. Goodrich, T. Keefer, G. Paige, W. D., and S. Skirvin, "Evaluation of hyperspectral, infrared temperature and radar measurements for monitoring surface soil moisture," in 1st Interagency Conference on Research in the Watersheds, 528-533, (Benson, Arizona) (2003).
I. Bogrekci and W. S. Lee, "The effects of soil moisture content on reflectance spectra of soils using UV-VIS-NIR spectroscopy," in 7th International Conference on Precision Agriculture, (Minneapolis) (2004).
U. Wendling, G. Fuchs, and G. Muller-Westermeier, Mittlere jahrliche Verdunstungshohe als Gras-Referenzverdunstung, Hydrologischer Atlas von Deutschland 2.12, Bundesministerium fur Umwelt (1999).
I. W. G. WRB, "World reference base for soil resources," tech. rep., FAO (2006).
C. Lemmnitz, M. Kuhnert, O. Bens, A. Guntner, B. Merz, and R. Huttl, "Spatial and temporal variations of actual soil water repellency and their influence on surface runoff," Hydrolog. Process. 22, 1976-1984 (2008).
F. Wisotzky and P. Obermann, "Acid mine groundwater in lignite overburden dumps and its prevention - the rhineland lignite mining area (germany)," Ecol. Eng. 17(2-3), 115-123 (2001).
T. Cocks, R. Jenssen, A. Stewart, I. Wilson, and T. Shields, "The hymap airborne hyperspectral sensor: The system, calibration and performance," in 1st EARSeL Workshop on Imaging Spectroscopy, (Zurich) (1998).
A. Nadler, S. Dasberg, and I. Lapid, "Time Domain Reflectometry measurements of water content and electrical conductivity of layered soil columns," Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 55, 938-943 (1991).
T. Heimovaara, "Frequency domain analysis of the time domain reflectometry waveforms - measurement of the complex dielectric permittivity of soils," Water Resour. Res. 30(20), 189-199 (1994).
A. Berk, G. P. Anderson, P. Acharya, M. L. Hoke, J. H. Chetwynd, L. S. Bernstein, E. P. Shettle, M. W. Matthew, and S. M. Adler-Golden, "Modtran 4 version 3 revision 1 users's manual," tech. rep., Air Force Research Laboratory (2003).
D. Shepard, "A two-dimensional interpolation function for irregularly-spaced data," in 23rd National Conference ACM, 517-524, ACM (1968).
C. Daughtry, E. Hunt Jr., and J. McMurtrey III, "Assessing crop residue cover using shortwave infrared reflectance," Rem. Sens. Environ. 90, 126-134 (2004).
K. Beven, "Runoff generation in semi-arid areas," in Dryland Rivers: Hydrology and Geomorphology of Semi-Arid Channels, L. Bull and M. Kirkby, Eds., 57-105, Wiley & Sons, Chichester (2002).

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